Why SpaceX is Using a New Fuel

  • Am Vor Monat

    Real EngineeringReal Engineering

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    Credits:
    Producer/Co-Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus
    Writer: Barnaby Martin
    Editor: Dylan Hennessy
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    Animator: Eli Prenten
    Sound: Graham Haerther
    Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster

    References
    [1] Rocket Propulsion Elements, 8th edition [Sutton, 2010]: archive.org/download/Rocket_P...
    [2] global.jaxa.jp/projects/engin...
    [2a] space-scitechjournal.org.ua/en...
    [3] www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lea...
    [3a] link.springer.com/chapter/10....
    [3b] arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.2672
    [4] www.researchgate.net/publicat...
    [5] www.journal.csj.jp/doi/10.124...
    [6] www.nature.com/articles/natur...
    [7] www.nature.com/articles/s4146...
    [8] www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/8/12/578

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Hugh Jass
Hugh Jass

"Where I can inspire, brilliant can educate" Don't sell yourself short man, you've taught me a hell of a lot

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TESS
TESS

@BELIEVE in JESUS lol

Vor Monat
Eko Khoirunnas Priyadi
Eko Khoirunnas Priyadi

agreed

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Lucas Felipe de Sousa
Lucas Felipe de Sousa

But he still knows that's he's just scratching the surface...

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David Lloyd
David Lloyd

I can thoroughly recommend reading “ignition!”, it is absolutely packed with information and they should make a film of his career as a rocket propellant expert. They even used liquid mercury once as a propellant. He also talks about using chlorine triflouride (which actually burns concrete on contact!) as a propellant too, among myriads of other types.

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MJ Pearce
MJ Pearce

Problems arises like hydrogen is hard on parts. Many propellants are very corrosive.

Vor 15 Tage
Hidden America Channel
Hidden America Channel

I think they still use mercury in some secret weapons like the TR-3B flying triangle.

Vor 19 Tage
Dysan27
Dysan27

@Michael Lenczewski "But one minor defect in the tank and it burns right through!!!" Yup you end up with a metal-fluoride fire. For which the best equipment to deal with such a situation is apparently a good pair of running shoes.

Vor 25 Tage
TheSpacecraftX
TheSpacecraftX

The darker exhaust on the Saturn launch is because there is fuel sprayed down the sided of the nozzle to provide cooling. Not all kerosene rocket exhausts look as dark as that.

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TheSpacecraftX
TheSpacecraftX

@Anopo Abednego Yeah This was a half-remembered fact. It's gas generator exhaust which does have a partial cooling effect with associated benefits but the darkness is because gas generator exhaust is fuel rich. It's still true that this is an engine design feature.

Vor 14 Tage
Anopo Abednego
Anopo Abednego

False.

Vor 14 Tage
Jesse Pollard
Jesse Pollard

NOPE. fuel is used to cool the engine - but it is then cycled back into the combustion chamber.

Vor 22 Tage
Mark Henderson
Mark Henderson

He's a muskrat and they're not known for their intelligence

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Intel
Intel

@PBMS123 This is correct

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Knirin
Knirin

By the way that 400C reaction temperature for the Sabatier process is about 200C below the operating temperature of the MSR built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Most Solar Thermal systems using molten salts operate around 600C as well, so there are several options for cheap thermal energy to run the reaction.

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Jared Owen
Jared Owen

Love the 3d models😃

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SpaceX Flight Sim
SpaceX Flight Sim

🤩🤩🤩Jared Owen my Favorite 3D Educator

Vor 27 Tage
Robbert Sprezzatura
Robbert Sprezzatura

Great fan of you!

Vor 29 Tage
Shoe
Shoe

18 likes no comments? Hellow Jared owen

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zenith parsec
zenith parsec

The reason it burned with so much soot was it was a deliberately fuel rich mixture. If they ran the engines at perfect stoichiometric ratios, they would have melted. And some of the soot is from the turbopump. And the ratio could be changed to "throttle" the engine via the engines' "Propellant Utilization" valves. (It's not actually throttling, but had a similar thrust modulating effect . )

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John Osman
John Osman

@Lounge lizard, and as it makes the fertilizer you speak of, it can also be used as an explosive, … but will not be excited enough by buying a demolition cap to set the process in motion, it will need a sufficient amount of TNT, or dynamite, …

Vor 8 Tage
Anopo Abednego
Anopo Abednego

False.

Vor 14 Tage
Aaron Franklin
Aaron Franklin

@Reconnaissance look up the friggen specs of the SatV and other rocket motors on Wikipedia. How the f do you think they could achieve the specific impulse they claim with pathetic 50Atm chamber pressures. The Russians were achieving 280 at the time. Elons raptors are the first American built motors to catch up with the Soviet 1960s tech. The Russians, Indians, Chinese all admitted to their public that it was not possible with technology that we STILL don't have to put a man on the moon. But you want to believe tricky Dickie Nixons Hollywood effort. 🙄🥱

Vor 17 Tage
Inservio
Inservio

Humble as always, informative as ever, and honestly fantastically structured, paced, and cut. Brilliant's got nothing on you my friend. Don't sell yourself short.

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Francesco Giuseppe Aragona
Francesco Giuseppe Aragona

I see a couple of errors here: -1 sometimes hydrigen is referred to as H, while it is H2, as correctly reported sometimes. Some equations are also wrong, such as the one at 9:11 4H2O → 4H2 + 2O2, then 4H2 + CO2 → 2H2O + CH4, but these are kinda minor imprecision. -2 coking in the engines is not much caused by long chain hydrocarbons, rather by alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons, which are naturally present in kerosene. RP-1 is a highly refined kerosene that eliminates much of the olefins and aromatics, but as of my understanding it's impossible to get rid of 100% of them. -3 The black soot you see at the exhaust of Saturn 5's F-1 engine is not caused by poorly burned fuel, but from fully unburned fuel that was used as nozzle coolant. This fuel was unburned, because it was just for cooling, so a large formation of soot is expected. -4 You wouldn't want to convert captured CO2 back into methane because in order to do this you would need at least the same amount of energy that was obtained by burning the hydrocarbon that generated it, rendering the whole process useless. Of course, you can store it and revert it back to hydrocarbon when you have overproduction of renewables, but this is still not really recommended. The best we can do with captured CO2, as for now, is just to bury it underground and leave it there forever, using something like zeolytes or MOFs to stabilize it. Think of these as sort of a CO2 sponges. Anyways, very interesting video.

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Steven Nicholas
Steven Nicholas

@jetison333 I know H2 isn't water. I was just commenting on the difference between it's reference in the periodic table vs molecular structure/state. As pointed out by Imcons Equetau in response to me, converting it to plain H is not a desired way to store it in bulk.

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jetison333
jetison333

@Steven Nicholas H2 is not the same as H2O. H2 has no oxygen in it, and is the natural state of hydrogen. The reason it's 2 instead of just h is that it binds with itself to form molecules out of two hydrogen atoms.

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Steven Nicholas
Steven Nicholas

@Imcons Equetau This is why i'm not a rocket scientist. :D Well, one of the reasons.

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The King in Yellow
The King in Yellow

-4 CO2 injection is a poor solution to the problem of atmospheric CO2 removal. Biome methods such as soil sequestration and wetlands expansion are better in so many ways. Of course, whether these methods could store enough CO2 in the short timeframe we have allotted to us means that direct injection will probably also have to be part of the solution.

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2Hedz
2Hedz

@Steven Nicholas yikes...

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uncommon logic
uncommon logic

Great video. Thank you for the explanation of the importance of Discovery and Space. People don't know the massive impact of innovation driven by discovery and just trying to understand our universe.

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Cj Matulka
Cj Matulka

My favorite interest in the space industry is in the launching and recovery process. Things are still primitive and the years of practical experience is beginning to pay off, still have a lot of room for evolution in both realms. Carry on.

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Joris
Joris

Great video, as always! I would definitely mention synthesising fuel on Mars in the title. If I had seen that, I would have immediately clicked (instead of having to convince myself to click because I know your videos are good stuff).

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BestFamilyCars
BestFamilyCars

Geezuz I love this channel. Inspires me to make sure my kids pay attention to STEM when they reach big school. Great work, as always, Brian and team.

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Kit Kerames
Kit Kerames

Great video! I like everything your channel puts out. But as an engineer myself, I just want to make a correction about impulse. It doesn’t represent total energy released. In this case it represents total momentum gained by the rocket due to the fuel.

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Kit Kerames
Kit Kerames

Sure @Ron Jon . Impulse is indeed the area under a force vs time curve like the one in the video. This is also equal to change in momentum over the time the force is being applied. To see why, you'd need to integrate force and the answer would be equal to the final momentum minus the initial momentum (I'll put the math at the end of my post). So fundamentally, the impulse represents the total increase in momentum due to an applied force. That increase in momentum is related to the energy gained, but it's not a direct relationship so we can't say the area under the curve represents the energy gained. You can calculate the area under the curve by taking the integral of the force function f(t) with respect to t over some initial time to a final time: ∫f(t)dt. Newton’s second law defines force as, f(t)=ma=m(dv/dt) where m, a, and v are mass, acceleration, and velocity respectively (dv/dt is the derivative of velocity which is equal to acceleration). So the integral becomes, ∫(dmv/dt)dt=∆(mv). This result is equal to change in momentum since momentum is defined as P=mv. On the other hand, energy gained by the rocket, due to the fuel alone, is equal to the rocket's change in kinetic energy (a measure of energy associated with an object’s speed). Change in kinetic energy is ∆(0.5mv^2) which you can see is similar to momentum, but the relationship is quadratic so it will not be directly related to impulse. Instead, increasing the area under the curve will quadratically increase the amount of energy the fuel provides to the rocket. I know that’s a lot so feel free to ask any follow-ups.

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Ron Jon
Ron Jon

Can you explain that further, please?

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Witchdoctor
Witchdoctor

This was a great video, nicely summarizing the general idea. Also I highly recommened the book Ignition! even if you don't understand chemistry it is still a fun read that explains a lot about propellants and how we settled on fuels that are used most.

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John Di Giorgio
John Di Giorgio

A note about sooty rocket exhaust - a few times you talk about how sooty rp1 is and at the same time show a bunch of relatively dark black flecked exhaust from a Saturn five launch. Yes the combustion is relatively incomplete which is why we can see the yellow flame but it isn’t like what you show in these clips. That part of the exhaust comes from film cooling, where they purposely ran fuel rich mixture around the outside of the nozzle to keep it from overheating.

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Anopo Abednego
Anopo Abednego

False. Nothing you say here is correct.

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Mihkel Kukk
Mihkel Kukk

@pyropulse also, Film cooling does as well still create a slight soot problem, thus why the F1 engine was only possible to be used once.

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Mihkel Kukk
Mihkel Kukk

@pyropulse as in there's still soot being created, he could've used a different example that's more accurate to the case, but considering the majority of people aren't rocket Enthusiasts, it will get the point across. Of course, now the people have a wrong understanding of how an F1 Rocket Engine works but let's leave that to their future curiosity to educate upon.

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pyropulse
pyropulse

@Mihkel Kukk How does straight up lying get the point across?

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Danny Pipe Wrench
Danny Pipe Wrench

@Howard Kelsey I suppose there is a time and place for everything. And I do value religion. At this moment, though, we are discussing rocket science, but perhaps it is only God that can guide us to the knowledge we seek. Perhaps, He has set out a path that will lead me to the answers to all of my questions.

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RipperRooh
RipperRooh

Yes, I found "ignition" to be a book that allowed my fictional mind to gravitate towards profound possibilities. Whereas, it not only gave me a clear process of the science of Rocket Fuels, but it also enlightened my creativity level to design rockets and propellents for future use. Awesome vid thx! 💖👍

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Brent Boswell
Brent Boswell

The world's first rocket engine designed to be reusable- the Rocketdyne RS-25, is a liquid hydrogen/ liquid oxygen engine. I'd love to know how hydrogenization affected the engine. As I recall, the engine was designed for 25 launches. As I understand it, three of the four RS-25's being used for Artemis 1 are leftover, flight used shuttle engines

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Camilo Guzman
Camilo Guzman

You make look engineering, very easy, how much work and effort You and your team put to get this levels, graph are Great. Speachless😁

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Natsirt
Natsirt

Awesome video. You really inspired me. I am concerned with how we will get hydrogen to mars to make methane. You can't just ship it to mars because it's not dense enough to be shipped without creating complex problems. What we need is metallic hydrogen. Sadly that's about as trusted to be coming soon as fusion. It is the ultimate dream fuel.

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Michael on Youtube
Michael on Youtube

Another benefit of methane is that since it has a similar boiling temperature as oxygen, not only can they use similar infrastructure, they can also be stored right next to each other in the rocket with minimal insulation which is not possible with hydrogen and oxygen or kerosene and oxygen, since the differences in the boiling point for those liquids is too much. This save space, simplifies components, and saves on the mass of systems within the ship to cool the propellants since you can use one system instead of two separate ones. All of that really helps when you want to mass produce those systems and tanks for as cheaply as possible.

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Anopo Abednego
Anopo Abednego

False.

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Michael Weskamp
Michael Weskamp

@Ed Bunkers After use its just as any other CO2.

Vor 21 Tag
Darth Julianus
Darth Julianus

It’s almost like this fuel is perfect for use exclusively in our solar system, especially if you consider that titan is a giant ball of methane

Vor 22 Tage
Michael on Youtube
Michael on Youtube

@mouserr I was talking about the rocket not the infrastructure on the ground. On the ground they must be kept separate for the reasons you stated, though there is still the benefit of being able to use similar systems and infrastructure between the two sets of storage which will save on equipment costs and employee training on how to handle super cold systems.

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Nicholas Klangos
Nicholas Klangos

Great video! Your reason for the importance of NASA and other space research science etc is spot on and a constant justifiable positive argument I have had for decades with those that ask those questions and don’t understand. Most people don’t know all the benefits that have come from those decades of science in their everyday lives, medical science one of the biggest, too many to name. Go space X! And other commercial ventures!!

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The_Zimbabwean_Mechanic
The_Zimbabwean_Mechanic

00:19 that ignition onrush of gasses that get sucked back in by the negative pressure zone/vacuum created by the rapid exhaust leaving the chamber always tickles me. Gas goes up and reverses, so simple yet wonderful.

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Mukona NK
Mukona NK

Damn I was about to search for the reaction used to produce methane from carbon dioxide but this actually showed it, this video is really comprehensive.

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Peter_david _
Peter_david _

"We have been given the scientific knowledge, the technical ability and the materials to pursue the exploration of the universe. To ignore these great resources, will be a corruption of a God-given ability" I just love this opening address ❤️

Vor 23 Tage
Kevin Maher
Kevin Maher

Same isn't this the German American in the opening Wernher Vonn Baun one of the most important rocket developers and champions of space exploration

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Raven Coldheart
Raven Coldheart

Another reason they went with Methane is that is allows the full flow staged combustion cycle of the Raptor to work. The Merlin uses uses Kerosene and has minimal to no refurbishment required.

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manofsan
manofsan

Meh, it has good specific impulse, phase temperature overlap with liquid oxygen, and it can be synthesized through Mars ISRU

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Widodo Akrom
Widodo Akrom

Also methane has more energy than hydrogen per volume

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2Hedz
2Hedz

@Kain Yusanagi do you work as a rocket engineer?

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Honor, Integrity, God, Conscience
Honor, Integrity, God, Conscience

@Bala M Ok

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Bala M
Bala M

Uses uses kerosene? Turns out humans ignore if a word is used twice with a line line break between them.

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William Kennison
William Kennison

This is the 1st I've heard of this technology. It is KISS simple and one of those things that was right in front of us all this time. Brilliant!

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Dragon Midnight
Dragon Midnight

Awesome video. Will there be a video on either ammonia or hydrogen fuel in the aviation industry?

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ZER0210
ZER0210

Hearing about all the factors that go into making this stuff more efficient and more effective reminds me of when you have a really strong hand in a trading card game.

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Matteo Furia Bonanomi
Matteo Furia Bonanomi

good video sir, really interesting. just one clarification from a pedant chemist: at 9:04 you say that 4 moles of hydrogen are used, but if you look closely you can see that that hydrogen has no "2" at his pedice, hence I suggest you to correct it because if you leave it like this it seem like you're using radical hydrogen. also I don't understand why you didn't add the plus sign (+) in between oxygen and hydrogen generated trough electrolysis in the same set of equations; finally the CO2 at the bottom equation should have the 2 at pedice since it indicates the fact that the carbon is linked to two oxygens. as a general rule for chemistry equations: numbers in front of formulas are normal and those indicates the number of molecules obtained, and numbers in the formulas of in front of formulas indicate how many atoms are included in that molecule hence are write smaller ( pedice). if you need a clarification contact me freely. have a goo day.

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Minecrafter_936
Minecrafter_936

Hey this is what I’m learning about in my chemistry class. Just thought it was cool

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-SOFFY-- Go To My ChanneI! L!VE NOW
-SOFFY-- Go To My ChanneI! L!VE NOW

Your consistency and quality of content never disappoints!

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boltonky
boltonky

Awesome videos always full of good knowledge. One thing my 15 year old son said to me the other night that without free education or shared technology (private/goverments open sourcing tech to improve the world if they are not willing to do it themselves, same for medical as it would change so many lives...cancer treatments etc) we wont succeed cause the ones that could change the world now wont and its left to the small people that never have a chance.

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Daniel Mosher
Daniel Mosher

Good stuff as always! In an attempt to broaden people's knowledge base and critical thinking open mindedness, I recommend; Dr. Will Happen, Dr. Willy Soon, Dr. Freeman Dyson, and Dr. Nils Axel Morner.

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CJ Schoenmann
CJ Schoenmann

This is one of my favorite videos. I just did a science fair on this concept. Thank you for the video

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Skougi
Skougi

I appreciate the bit addressing why space exploration is an important problem along with the other big ones we are working on. industry hands us problem after problem to solve with a frequency that just doesn't happen in research labs. space is that kind of progress.

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Matts Toaster
Matts Toaster

@Thomas Livingstone but vast majority of US presidents have been religious and of couse with being president you have direct access to the nuclear weapons. Thankfully none have been so insane to actually use them, but seeing how modern doomsayers have been getting more and more prevalent. Nuclear catastrophe may just come sooner than expected..

Vor 24 Tage
Thomas Livingstone
Thomas Livingstone

@jhax i find them to be bothersome at best but a danger if any one of them gets real power, like nukes.

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jhax
jhax

@Thomas Livingstone They better stay in their lane. I know more about god than most evangelist ever will, people who want to evangelize are fine by me, people who haphazardly go tell everyone (intentional or not, is irrelevant) they're lesser people are in fact the exact people their literature says NOT to be. If you contradict what your religion says, I simply have 0 interest in listening to you evangelize about your religion. Be real, and actually represent what you preach, and I might listen to you.

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Patrick Wrightson
Patrick Wrightson

Thank you for continuing to cover SpaceX and their amazing progress. It’s very appreciated.

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Abel Knecht
Abel Knecht

CO2 can always be brought back to methane, but thermodynamics say that you need to put at least the same amount of energy back into the reaction. engineering says you need more energy. This process is only viable if the energy is from renewable (non CO2 emitting) sources and the original process must emit CO2, such as cement production. Otherwise just avoiding the combustion is way better.

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Blak
Blak

As far as Earth is concerned, carbon-to-fuel processes are intended to be a temporary step. Obviously the idea of capturing carbon into fuel only to burn it again seems silly, but the ability to sell the produced fuel provides a potential economic basis to cement and improve the technology. The capture itself at this point is carbon neutral so long as its power source is as well. Once further progress has been made on upscaling renewables, the cost of carbon capture can be shifted off of manufactured fuel and onto tax-funded subsidies/direct use of revenue from renewable power. Now that selling and burning the captured carbon is no longer required, all those well-established carbon capture plants can just switch to permanent storage and sequestration of carbon.

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Fenthule
Fenthule

As soon as I saw the RWGSR+ Sebatier reaction pop up I noticed that excess carbon immediately. Imagine if there was a way we could strip it, and just lay them out like a printer - essentially printing sheets of graphene. Oohhhhhh myyy. Here's your methane for fuel, your oxygen for breathing, some graphene for building materials, water for drinking. I should ask my chemical engineer buddy about this lol

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Jay Straw
Jay Straw

15:03 I love pure research. I love space. I want to be the first band to play the Moon and Mars. But it's immoral to force someone else to pay for it. Full stop. That's a grotesque and indefensible position.

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Andreas Klein
Andreas Klein

Very nice presentation. Could you make a follow-up video with ways to process Mars rock into H2, O2 and metals? Excuse my lack of chemistry - but is there a way to do something with CO?

Vor 22 Tage
Pete’s Guide
Pete’s Guide

Best damned explanation of specific impulse I’ve ever heard. I’d like to underscore how high a compliment that is: I was lucky enough to spend more time hanging out with a physicist/rocket scientist (and great communicator) than my own dad—one who had Werner on speed dial and had design oversight over all the Apollo electronics. Keep up the awesome work!

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Vecheslav Novikov
Vecheslav Novikov

Wouldn't it be simpler to say that specific impulse is basically exhaust velocity? (divided by g for reasons). Basically, the faster you yeet burnt fuel out the back of the thing, the faster the thing can go on the same amount of fuel.

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ronkirk50
ronkirk50

I was one of the millions who watched the first lunar landing. Last fall I got opportunity to watched a SpaceX launch and booster return at Kennedy Space Center. We've come a long way.

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Jstunna
Jstunna

i've learned so much from your videos, like it's awesome. thank you!

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Mauzen
Mauzen

These videos are always so well done. The quote at the beginning really draws your attention and sets the stage. Really just marvelous work.

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Donald Duck
Donald Duck

I just love von Braun. Greatest man (together with Korolyov) of the 20th century. I would rather lose Gandhi than them.

Vor 23 Tage
1.5x playback everything - thank me later
1.5x playback everything - thank me later

Top quality content, once again here lads. Thank you

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Werner Gmeineder
Werner Gmeineder

I always wondered what type of fuel they used for the take off from Moon without making any form of mess.... After landing also all stones look to be very undisturbed. And all this in a "flimsy" looking lander. We must have lost this great technology over the years.

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vbddfy euuyt
vbddfy euuyt

"Thermodynamic equilibirium is a war of attrition that the universe will always win" is an amazing sentence. Kudos to whoever wrote it.

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Marrethiel
Marrethiel

I would love an "Insane engineering of the Voyager 1 and 2"... these ships are still cranking along.

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zimriel
zimriel

Voyager 1 is probably borked tho'. The readings it's sending back are, 80% likely, software bugs.

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aresmars2003
aresmars2003

I wonder what options there are in extracting CO2 from Venus's atmosphere (as balloon colony) and using it for fuel and plant food. But there's no water, so maybe we'd need to bring water or hydrogen to Venus, and be very efficiency in using it as a closed loop, easier for a greenhouse, than if we need for methane fuel.

Vor 22 Tage
Sébastien M
Sébastien M

Soviets had already developed mathalox rocket engines : RD-0162, RD-0141 & RD-0143, RD-183 & RD-185. Unfortunately, they never flew on a real rocket, only static fires had been conducted.

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A G
A G

@ANIMEEE "... and have the best anti ICBM -anti aircraft rockets right now." Israelis repeatedly destroy those "best" systems in Syria with little to no damage to their aircraft. Remember, no matter what propaganda says, a country that can't produce decent car or mobile phone, can't produce even remotely decent high-tech military equipment.

Vor 20 Tage
erikals
erikals

@Rakaydos Draj yep, a retroreflector on the moon. tricky to fake. to say the least.

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jamie
jamie

You make several referencs to the sooty exhaust of the Saturn V F1 engines. I wonder if the appearance that you're referring to is more about the raw fuel that was injected at the head of the nozel to create a "cool" eveporative barrier between the intensely hot exhaust and the inner walls of the novel. That fuel would not burn completely. They actually went to great lengths to make sure that the RP1 fuel and liguid oxygen mixture burned efficiently and consistently. Without that you get violent feed back pressure/thrust changes called pogo'ing that would damage the rocket structure.

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Deeparth Gupta
Deeparth Gupta

I wonder how long it would take to produce a kg of hydrogen if we started collecting protons and electrons from solar wind. If it's even possible at all, that is.

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Daniel Nunya Bidnezz
Daniel Nunya Bidnezz

I wonder if when they switched fuels, they needed to use a new metal to work with it?

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BusterBuizel
BusterBuizel

Wait... So Highfleet’s worldbuilding actually makes sense using liquid compressed methane to power massive airships? And the fact that the Co2 that is expelled by thrusters into the atmosphere can be recondensed and refined back into liquid methane? HOLY CRAP THATS NEAT

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BusterBuizel
BusterBuizel

@Abel Knecht seeing as how Highfleets world features a nuclear reactor the size of a city and hundreds of thousand+ ton airships outputting enough rocket thrust to instantly insulate a small planetoid with greenhouse emissions I still think it’s pretty neat on the worldbuilding how this all fits together

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Abel Knecht
Abel Knecht

CO2 can always be brought back to methane, but thermodynamics say that you need to put at least the same amount of energy back into the reaction. engineering says you need more energy. This process is only viable if the energy is from renewable (non CO2 emitting) sources and the original process must emit CO2, such as cement production.

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AncapistanVan
AncapistanVan

pls explain?

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serdy ximi
serdy ximi

I would love to learn about rotating-detonation engines! And what kinds of possibilities they will unlock for aerospace.

Vor Monat
Patrik Lindholm
Patrik Lindholm

A good bit behind the development already in use for quite some time this channel is, wouldn't you say?

Vor Monat
Ben Coad
Ben Coad

They are design molten salt reactors around the idea of producing liquid fuels for when power demand is low, so that would solve that problem.

Vor Monat
Angela White
Angela White

These videos are always so well done. The quote at the beginning really draws your attention and sets the stage. Really just marvelous work.

Vor Monat
Cassie
Cassie

Your consistency and quality of content never disappoints! ❤

Vor Monat
Joe McGonagle
Joe McGonagle

Amazing work! I always throughly enjoy watching these videos. You do an excellent job discussing technical information in a manner that keeps engineers like us entertained while also explaining what it means to people who are less familiar with the subject matter. Keep it up!

Vor Monat
This is new
This is new

I think an interesting topic for this channel would be exploring the different possibilities of thermochemically produced hydrogen directly from heat (ideally concentrated solar or high temperature nuclear), of which nuclear + the Sulphur Iodine cycle is the best positioned. Keep pumping out these fantastic videos!

Vor Monat
Aleide
Aleide

Never heard of that,but i does sound interesting. Do you have any video on the subject?

Vor Monat
Gareth Walker
Gareth Walker

Amazing look at how it all needs to work together to make it a success 🙌 👏 👊

Vor Monat
Caleb Fielding
Caleb Fielding

Honestly someone (space x, nasa, ISS I dont care) needs to build an interplanetary ship built in orbit, large enough for spin gravety, and designed to move from one planets orbit to another planets orbit.

Vor Monat
Jorge Nascimento
Jorge Nascimento

This is funny and interesting, on the game surviving Mars you use a similar tech to refuel your rocket in Mars. Not as accurate as this explanation, but same result.

Vor Monat
Ian Mangham
Ian Mangham

Can I get that in the zx81?

Vor Monat
BezBog
BezBog

These slow motion shots of the Saturn V never get old. This was truly an awe inspiring moment in human history

Vor Monat
BezBog
BezBog

Thanks, corrected - don't know why the Atlas popped into my head instead of Saturn :)

Vor 28 Tage
Master of the Universe
Master of the Universe

Thank you.

Vor Monat
Imcons Equetau
Imcons Equetau

@Michael on Youtube That was a throttle-down test to a minimal thrust setting. At full thrust, no icicles.

Vor Monat
Michael on Youtube
Michael on Youtube

my favourite shot of an engine firing was a slowmo shot of space shuttle engine test where the outer rim of the rocket bell had icicles on it from the super cold fuel flowing through it to cool it down, and right next to those icicles was the engine firing full throttle with a bunch of clear blue exhaust. The duality of super cold right next to almost surface of the sun hot, was super cool, and really shows just how much insane engineering goes into making these things that allows them to achieve that.

Vor Monat
Danny Pipe Wrench
Danny Pipe Wrench

That is the Saturn V, but the Atlas V is really good too. Ares V was going to be great, like SON OF SATURN V great. Titan V would have been great, but Delta and Atlas were favored over Titan. Titan V would have been a hydrolox system instead of aerozene-50/N2O4, and would have had first and second stage extensions, by ten feet each. Possibly even diameter increases, perhaps to 15 feet on the first stage, much like the Titan-based Barbarian proposals. Delta V (Not delta-v) is more or less what Vulcan will be. Vulcan could perhaps be Atlas VI.

Vor Monat
carholic1336
carholic1336

Another cool thing is that hydrogen is already replacing coal in steel production and a lot of industrial processes.

Vor Monat
Dagobah 359
Dagobah 359

15:02 I used to say that climate change was the biggest challenge we face this century. however artificial intelligence is coming faster (about 10-20 years away) and will have a bigger impact. Developing AI in a way which benefits humanity instead of destroys it is by far the biggest challenge we'll face this century.

Vor Monat
Gort55
Gort55

Great video! Just can't get over that you actually believe that "climate change" as it is defined by climate alarmists is a real thing? Each to their own I guess but it seems a waste of creative talent chasing illusions when there are so many pie in sky dreams still needing attention. Teleportation and phasers comes to mind.

Vor Monat
willythemailboy2
willythemailboy2

I wonder if other very small hydrocarbons have been investigated - ethane or ethene for example. Even acetylene/acetone mix. They'd fall between methane and kerosene in terms of storage and stoichiometry. Or perhaps anhydrous ammonia.

Vor 15 Tage
James Heinz
James Heinz

Great upload, thank you for the time and research.

Vor 5 Tage
Shawn Elliott
Shawn Elliott

When people ask me "Why are we wasting time trying to go to other planets when we need to fix the one we live on right now?", I tell them that if 7 billion people can't manage to work on 2 problems at once, then we deserve to go extinct.

Vor Monat
Kit Naylor
Kit Naylor

1:10 this is a gross oversimplification. A liquid hydrogen first stage was considered, and would have been feasible to build - and would have resulted in the Saturn V weighing only 2/3 what it did. The reason they didn't go with it wasn't tank size, it was that liquid hydrogen produces much lower *thrust* than kerosene, so building a powerful enough first stage engines would have been more challenging.

Vor Monat
Kit Naylor
Kit Naylor

@Angry Mokyuu The largest ever solid rocket motor was actually fired in 1965 and 1966 (weighing about 850T, compared to the 600T for the shuttle). These were meant to be alternative first stages for the Saturn 1B, but were never flown... or even removed from the test stand after firing, they're still there.

Vor 26 Tage
Angry Mokyuu
Angry Mokyuu

​@xponen_ I don't think that solid fuel rockets were where they needed to be at the time, plus the US had little experience with the concept at the time the Saturn V was designed(though it's noteworthy that the Soviet N-1 also lacked boosters, despite their experience with them).

Vor Monat
xponen_
xponen_

can use booster like they did with the Space Shuttle. Solid fuel has the highest thrust ever so they are often used as a strapped-on boosters for lots of rockets.

Vor Monat
karthic ashokan
karthic ashokan

Haha, this is probably the third or fourth time I’m learning about Specific Impulse. You should probably create a separate video for this and then link to it in all other rocket videos.

Vor Monat
Ron Jon
Ron Jon

I vote yes for multiple videos dealing w rocket science. Tim Dodd at Everday Astronaut has done a bunch, which are excellent, and getting RE’s perspective on these topics along w his explanations of the science and engineering would be very useful. I like the depth RE goes into deriving the ‘how’ behind the various metrics.

Vor Monat
Khether
Khether

The amount of research to create this video is amazing! Reminding that it is not only googling the subject, he (and his team?) had thousands of hours studying a lot to even understand and relay the subject properly. Excellent video. Congratulations!

Vor Monat
MonkeyJedi99
MonkeyJedi99

Ignition! is a good read on the topic of rocket fuels.

Vor Monat
Bernard Couvreur
Bernard Couvreur

Great presentation ! at 10:00 when you purify CO2 out of the martian atmosphere by congelation at -78°c, I guess you could recover useful amounts of nitrogen as by product and use it to make an artificial earth like atmosphere to grow plants for example.

Vor Monat
Herman Robak
Herman Robak

@Neku The heater would be electric, presumably. Solar or nuclear.

Vor 17 Tage
Neku
Neku

Ok what fuel is being use for the heater. Magic?

Vor Monat
Gregory Vasilyev
Gregory Vasilyev

Second law of thermodynamics dictates that the most efficient way to capture CO2 from burning fossil fuels is to not burn them in the first place. Any other reaction requires more energy than burning the fuel can give.

Vor 11 Tage
Treviisolion
Treviisolion

There’s an error in your stoichometry at 9:16 You wrote down the methane production process as requiring 4 moles of Hydrogen ions, when it should be 4 moles of Hydrogen gas. Otherwise there are not enough Hydrogen atoms to make 2 moles of water and 2 moles of water.

Vor Monat
Mike S
Mike S

Maybe you could do an episode on how the catalyst works in the fuel example you gave.

Vor Monat
Travis Van Couvering
Travis Van Couvering

I would love to learn about rotating-detonation engines! And what kinds of possibilities they will unlock for aerospace.

Vor Monat
Ansley Lobo
Ansley Lobo

I second this

Vor Monat
Moxzot
Moxzot

Might be the awkward middleground but reusable engines without soot or coaking is a huge plus.

Vor Monat
Benjamin
Benjamin

I checked out a book at my university’s library which discusses different rocket fuels. Love this kind of stuff!

Vor Monat
Angela White
Angela White

These slow motion shots of the Atlas V never get old. This was truly an awe inspiring moment in human history

Vor Monat
Kashmir Empire of 5000 years.
Kashmir Empire of 5000 years.

Angela you field of engineering is different than this. 🤣😂🤣

Vor Monat
YouTube user
YouTube user

There’s one major problem that has to be overcome. The radiation a human will absorb while travelling to, living on and returning from mars. A solar flare will also add more radiation to the total. Why no one is discussing this point is beyond me.

Vor Monat
Grzegorz Kapica
Grzegorz Kapica

I like and enjoy watching your content. However I have an issue with your approach to metrics. Impulse is not a fact, it is a metric, it is a way of understanding, imagining, describing, calculating, measuring. It is not a physical phenomenon. I took me a while to understand there is this difference and to get, it has value. The value is; only trained engineers and physicists understand and care to use these phrases. You may want to find a simpler way of communicating.

Vor Monat
Honor, Integrity, God, Conscience
Honor, Integrity, God, Conscience

I would like a discussion of the environmental impact as my life is being curtailed along the same basis!

Vor Monat
TenPin22
TenPin22

"Working on difficult problems to make Mars habitable will directly lead to helping solve the greatest problem facing earth today". This is not a valid argument. How about we just, y'know, directly put the effort into solving earth's problems instead of inefficiently in a roundabout way mess around with Mars which is a complete waste of effort.

Vor Monat
Tangent Plays
Tangent Plays

As cool as all this is, I feel like you're not doing a good enough job explaining why this won't be happening anytime soon. It's also kind of frustrating to see you cite Elon Musk as a reliable source despite the constant proof that he has almost no idea what he's saying, and saying that solutions for Mars are what's needed to solve problems on Earth. Solutions for Mars *can help* solve problems on Earth, but saying we need those solutions to help here is like saying we have this massive toolbox, but the only way to build something is to use a hammer and nails. Earth has everything on it in various abundances where we don't need to worry about being irradiated or needing to breathe and eat, while Mars has only a few things accessible. The differences between the two are great enough that most solutions are not directly transferrable.

Vor Monat
Garry A. Reed
Garry A. Reed

Thank you for this enlightening video, l learned enough to want to learn more ! 🇺🇸🦅 👍👍👍👍👍

Vor Monat
Michael Deierhoi
Michael Deierhoi

Given the detail provided in this video I was a little surprised at the following. At 8:10 there is a statement that the atmosphere on Mars is 95% carbon dioxide followed by "carbon dioxide rich atmosphere". These are very misleading statements when not put in context. Calling Mars carbon dioxide rich is only true in a relative sense that being that the atmosphere is 95 % CO2. But the reality is that the atmospheric pressure on Mars is 1/100th that of earth!! Now that doesn't look very carbon dioxide rich now does it!?!?

Vor 24 Tage
Undcvr
Undcvr

I was thinking "they are not using Metahne anymore? 🤔" Now I know that I'm just far to ahead 😂

Vor Monat
KEX CZ
KEX CZ

Great video! :D. btw, I have an idea for some future video: Engineering behind the Google Lens . I think it would be really interesting to do video about it! ;)

Vor Monat
Erick Falcon
Erick Falcon

I usually don't comment on YouTube but great video. Please make more videos that go into technical depth like this one.

Vor Monat
Luke Stewart
Luke Stewart

Thank you so much for actually admitting that carbon is not a waste product but another resource we haven’t used yet

Vor Monat
Bob Greene
Bob Greene

As usual, graphics are excellent, and keep pace with the narrative.

Vor Monat
Andrew
Andrew

I get that one of the biggest reasons was that methane can be generated on mars, but can’t kerosene also be generated from the air on mars?

Vor Monat
Rick Kwitkoski
Rick Kwitkoski

much harder to generate kerosene

Vor 21 Tag
TANISHQ VASHISTHA
TANISHQ VASHISTHA

Chemistry is one of very few subjects where things usually go according to the equations….

Vor Monat
Cosplay in MiniaturE
Cosplay in MiniaturE

Something to digest for those that doubt the practical merit of investing time and resources into this strategy may find of benefit: dozens and more new technologies are stumbled upon through projects like this, where new methods have to be developed to tackle problems that can have additional and more widespread benefit than the primary topic of study ever envisioned. I myself often run into this, where I started on one specific target, and through the development to get the primary idea off the ground, end up developing 5 or 6 new application ideas along the way which likely have more practical and widespread use then that initial project ever could encompass by itself; occasionally you stumble onto something so magnificent that switching to one of those accidental discoveries is worth abandoning or postponing the first project because of said possibilities!

Vor Monat
Iron Bridge
Iron Bridge

Yes. Pretty similar to the ancient alchemists and transmutation chemists of the past. Wouldn't have a periodic table and other development otherwise.

Vor Monat
Mick Obrien
Mick Obrien

The most amazing fact about the Moon success for mankind... that the majority of people on the planet at the time... didn't or couldn't watch. THAT ALMOST SAYS MORE ABOUT HUMANITY THAN THE LAUNCH

Vor Monat
john kraemer
john kraemer

the area under the force curve doesn't give you energy, it gives change in momentum (i.e., impulse). integrating force with respect to distance gives you work, or total energy transformation.

Vor Monat
Amira Lozse
Amira Lozse

"this fuel has never been used" WOW!! thanks for this brilliant idea. I'll start selling 2nd hand fuel tomorrow!

Vor Monat
Dirty Miner Apparel
Dirty Miner Apparel

Rocket Fuel - The controlled explosion! Crazy to think we’ve come this far. I wonder where we will be in 100 years. Probably still on Earth because unless your in a controlled bubble we can’t live anywhere in our solar system.

Vor 17 Tage
Adam Ladd
Adam Ladd

The variety of kerosene used in US rockets is called RP-1 (the russiana have something called T-1 that is similar) It's far more refined than regular kerosene with lower sulphur, less alkenes and a tighter distillation range to give a higher quality fuel with more predictable behaviour.

Vor Monat
Manners
Manners

I just hope we dont mess around with something we barely understand and end up killing all the sparrows. Messing with Mars just seems like an awful idea. Shouldn't we understand Mars a bit more before we go tinkering with it? The earth has a massive buffering capacity for human screw ups, Mars may not...

Vor 27 Tage

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