The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

  • Am Vor year

    VeritasiumVeritasium

    If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

    Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
    Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
    Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

    LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
    Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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    References:
    Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

    Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

    Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

    Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

    Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

    Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

    N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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    Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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    Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
    Animation by Iván Tello
    Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
    Edited by Derek Muller
    Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
    Additional video supplied by Getty Images
    Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
    Produced by Casey Rentz
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Zeus KF
Zeus KF

You can tell that this professor really is interested in what he is doing.

Vor year
elastichedgehog
elastichedgehog

@-- ​ Good for him! Although, I doubt that was the case for most of his career and it certainly isn't the case for *most* academics.

Vor 11 Tage
--
--

@ChaCha how do you know how research grants are awarded?

Vor 11 Tage
--
--

@elastichedgehog > academia career not for the money Apparently Lenski had a $300k annual salary in 2019, according to govsalaries. Sounds pretty good money to me for fing around for 30 years.

Vor 11 Tage
T Greaux
T Greaux

You think? Maybe thats why he chose to dedicate his entire adult life to studying it and making a career out of it. Go figure

Vor 3 Monate
grys
grys

This professor is frighteningly good at explaining and keeping his audience engaged. I can see why he spoke for most of the video, and how there seems to be minimal cuts / editing of footage. Amazing! Thoroughly enjoyed grasping new concepts from listening to him.

Vor 23 Tage
Triairius
Triairius

@Benjamin Roodenburg Look, you asked. I don't know what to tell you other than what I know. If you want to argue, there are better ways to do it than to rope in someone who genuinely is trying to answer what I thought was an honest question.

Vor 9 Tage
MaskOnFilterOff
MaskOnFilterOff

​@Benjamin Roodenburg It's a common way to say, essentially, "awe-inspiring". It's exaggerating the awe to the point of fear, since the two often go hand in hand. Think, like, an eldritch horror or "the fear of God" or something. If you think about it, you'll probably realize you've heard people say things like "this is scary good" or "she's so hot it's scary"? Strong negative descriptors are often used to emphasize something positive. It's similar to using "crazy good" (so good it seems unreal; no literal mental illness involved) or "stupid good" (so good that you're dumbfounded; nothing to do with literal stupidity).

Vor 9 Tage
Benjamin Roodenburg
Benjamin Roodenburg

@Triairius exaggeration of the word scary? Why would it be scary in any kind of way? It being figurative would mean it has something in common with the emotion he’s trying to convey. I don’t think fear was the intended emotion. If I destroy someone in chess I can call it a massacre. Meaning that the opposition had not chance whatsoever. That would be the correlation, but I can’t see such a thing return in his wording.

Vor 9 Tage
Triairius
Triairius

@Benjamin Roodenburg It isn't. It's figurative. Exaggerated for effect.

Vor 10 Tage
Benjamin Roodenburg
Benjamin Roodenburg

Why is it frightening?

Vor 10 Tage
MysticVitriol
MysticVitriol

Imagine one of these days one colony forms a multicellular structure. Or 'cannibalise' but not really and form a structure similar to mitochondria or chloroplast. That would be sooo cool.

Vor 2 Monate
rJAYde
rJAYde

so I guess humanity might be destroyed by its creation. except it's not AI, it's these bacteria/um(idk)

Vor Tag
Ashurean
Ashurean

I bet there will be a day where we observe that kind of evolution in a laboratory environment, maybe it won't be from this experiment, maybe it won't be for another hundred years, but I bet it'll happen, and it'll be really cool.

Vor 15 Tage
GamePhysics
GamePhysics

@Greyshadow 5 That's interesting. 1 billion years is indeed a while! I've been thinking about trying to make an evolution simulator. Some people have done it to an extent, but not good enough I think. You'd have to design some sort of system that gives random variety in genes of the evolving species and then another system that decides which variety is most beneficial for survival in the current environment. Then along the way you could adjust atmospheric composition, temperature, etc. Obviously coding such a simulation would be incredibly challenging and time-consuming. But besides being really fun, you could easily alter things such as the rate of time, so you wouldn't have to wait a billion years for multicellular organisms.

Vor 16 Tage
MysticVitriol
MysticVitriol

@Sharp Shark i dont think there need to be a need for evolutionary pressure to "evolve" a trait. i think it is random. it is after the trait has been evolved the environment will decide which one is good enough to reproduce. that environment includes us . so the random sample we take everyday might remove the 'trait for multicellular' by accident. it is also possible that we look and suspect a 'multicellular trait' and we decide to cultivate it

Vor 16 Tage
Sharp Shark
Sharp Shark

One issue though: is there evolutionary pressure for that?

Vor 16 Tage
Solar 24
Solar 24

What an absolutely astounding experiment I’ve never heard of. Hopefully we can keep it going

Vor 3 Monate
Parvathy Pramod
Parvathy Pramod

The world of bacteria and archaea is really different. Trust me when i say i was stunned when my professor said “We have more bacterial cells in our body than our cells” on my first microbiology class. Their world teaches us the ‘will to survive’ in any condition

Vor 5 Monate
Struggle
Struggle

@EredilElexi Nah, it's true. Those bacterium though compared to the size of one human cell are relatively small though. So, in terms of mass of these cells we are majority human.

Vor 16 Tage
Sean Padden
Sean Padden

​@EredilElexi OK, you made a claim, provide evidence.

Vor Monat
EredilElexi
EredilElexi

This has been proven wrong

Vor Monat
DQMYNATOR 2.0
DQMYNATOR 2.0

Hello there, you handsome looking container of a brazillion microorganisms how about we .... ... meh. - I find my way out.

Vor 4 Monate
Ayisy Amirul
Ayisy Amirul

His team has been doing this for 33 years and not missed a single day? Now that’s commitment.

Vor year
Aurelia
Aurelia

No... not him. him and his team.

Vor 3 Tage
Traveller
Traveller

@S F perhaps interns

Vor 9 Tage
Aeons
Aeons

@S F As if they earn a lot of money with this... That's a pretty ignorant claim.

Vor 11 Tage
Chris -0
Chris -0

they missed alot of days, nonsense comment

Vor 11 Tage
cream boy
cream boy

"ALMOST every single day" - Veritasium hmmm... now I wonder what the truth is

Vor 12 Tage
Corne Mouton
Corne Mouton

How cool is Prof. Richard Lenski, damnit, was so fascinating listening to him. Interesting video, thank you!

Vor 5 Monate
S.Unosson
S.Unosson

@Sandro Félix What about the fact that mutations are practically exclusively deleterious? The mathematics of millions of bad mutations compared to a few possibly beneficial ones is difficult to explain as the source of new and ever more complex functional life forms. All cancer for example is result of mutations.

Vor Monat
Sandro Félix
Sandro Félix

@S.Unosson humans are complex organisms. We have millions of complex cells ready for mutations all the time, also the environment around us (virus, atmosphere, etc) push our evolution toward. The experiment is based on a simple bacteria on a controlled environment, so it is reasonable that the experiment showed less mutations than you thought it would happen

Vor Monat
S.Unosson
S.Unosson

But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?

Vor 5 Monate
adam84144
adam84144

That was fantastic! I'm not particularly biology-minded but the way he engaged with the subject and described the experiment had me glued to my monitor.

Vor 13 Tage
GamePhysics
GamePhysics

This is freaking amazing! Counting by hand when you have cameras and computers seems a bit oldschool, but I can respect the ritual.

Vor Monat
Thomas Dohn
Thomas Dohn

I just read The Greatest Show On Earth by Richard Dawkins, who outlined this exact experiment. It was amazing to have it vusialized and brought to life here. Thank you for sharing 🙂

Vor 16 Tage
Amirreza Azimi
Amirreza Azimi

The professor is so good at explaining what they do and what they have found!

Vor year
Tony Hakston
Tony Hakston

@S.Unosson What you call a small change is actually pretty big. E. coli’s inability to metabolize citrate when exposed to air is notable to the point of being a defining feature of the species. Such a major change honestly warranted speciation. Heck, it’d be a big thing even if it weren’t a defining feature. Change in metabolic capability is very difficult to develop, which is why pandas STILL can’t effectively metabolize plants despite bamboo being their entire diet.

Vor 5 Monate
S.Unosson
S.Unosson

But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?

Vor 5 Monate
Light Woven
Light Woven

@Tony Hakston trolling are we. Guess so bye. Conditionally ofc.

Vor 5 Monate
Tony Hakston
Tony Hakston

@Light Woven Do you not know what a prerequisite is? Because that’s the only way your response makes sense in regards to what I said.

Vor 5 Monate
Light Woven
Light Woven

@Tony Hakston speciation is not the same. There is no change in form, neither in these bacterium or in drosophila. I will point you to the RNA experiments on those pesky flies whereby injection of the most complex eye DNA from the squid shows no modification. This is due to RNA limitation of 'reading'/ignoring sequences. Calling the test an evolution experiment is a misnomer. Generational transformation has not occurred.

Vor 5 Monate
Fredward
Fredward

This has to be my favorite video of yours. I have watched it so many times. Not just because of the topic, but because of how it was presented. Every time I watch it, it never gets old. A great video overall.

Vor 5 Monate
Philip Dunne
Philip Dunne

This experiment is helping to refine the theory of evolution and is raising and answering really interesting questions. Great work.

Vor 3 Monate
Israel S. Garcia
Israel S. Garcia

The fact the it took so long to use carbon from a different source makes me think that was the same when life was formed. Maybe it took a bit of a time because there was some unknown condition that neeeded to be required first. Maybe some day, scientists will know what condition that would be. Or maybe not.

Vor 20 Tage
Alex TW
Alex TW

So fascinating and great testament to the dedication of the professor. I did start to wonder if despite the extremely controlled environment there are in fact some uncontrolled aspects influencing evolution. For example, if the lab techs tend to select solution from the bottom of the flask could they be selecting for bacteria that tends to grow under greater pressure? Not suggesting this is the case and such a hypothesis could be confounded by a systematic shaking of the flask but anyway, just a thought-provoking experiment/video all around.

Vor Monat
TechSource
TechSource

Absolutely loving these videos man. Keep up the grind!!!

Vor year
Dawn Ripper
Dawn Ripper

Yo, you're still alive? Haven't seen one of your videos since you got robbed cuz YT stopped recommending.

Vor year
devysk
devysk

make me a pc

Vor year
MASTER nobody
MASTER nobody

I dont like theory of evolution exist it is wrong science

Vor year
Curious Doc
Curious Doc

The Prof is such an engaging speaker! I could hear him talk science all day

Vor year
pazonk
pazonk

What is secksource doing here

Vor year
Fraser3005
Fraser3005

Absolutely amazing. It’s the kind of science you might not even consider, but to be able to quantify evolution….just imagine the things humans could achieve if we can just avoid destroying ourselves first

Vor 6 Tage
I C
I C

Some interesting things I noticed about the experiment. That number of generations was not enough to change any of those bacteria from being bacteria. Also positive mutations were selected for with each generation, this would add an increase in the speed and development of mutations versus bacteria in the wild. It also increases the probability of positive mutations. The experiment provides some really interesting insights.

Vor 5 Monate
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@I C " If a bacteria mutated to the point of not being a bacteria" There is no amount of mutation for bacteria to no longer be bacteria. That's the point. Just like humans are still eukaryotes.

Vor 5 Monate
I C
I C

@Crispr CAS9  I would have thought it would demonstrate common ancestry. If a bacteria mutated to the point of not being a bacteria but others were bacteria then that would be significant. It might also provide a basic formula for predicting the quickest time required for sexual selection to create a new branch in mamals based on time required for new generations to exist. So you could do a ratio between a human generation to the total number of bacteria generations in that time. It will be more complicated than that but that to me seems like a potential starting point.

Vor 5 Monate
I C
I C

@Crispr CAS9  Depends what you mean by disproves evolution. There are lots of different areas of evolutionary theory. For instance you can breed two fast horses to get a fast horse, and that is part of evolutionary theory.

Vor 5 Monate
Matthew02
Matthew02

So many questions... I wish I had a direct line to Prof. Lenski. I am curious if he hypothesizes that there is a singular "best-fit" model of DNA for the bacteria in the study. Is the growth medium controlled tightly enough for this to even be feasible? Is it possible to reach that singularity? How long might it take?

Vor 4 Tage
boo Jay
boo Jay

Would be cool to see another video like this with Will Ratcliff who is doing a similar experiment with yeast to unravel the evolution of multicellularity. Sean Carroll did a podcast interview with Will which I highly recommend on Mindscape, but I'd like to see the Veritasium treatment to get more animations and visuals of the experiments.

Vor 4 Monate
Just a Dummy
Just a Dummy

People miss that the opening video of the Antibacterial-Resistant Bacteria showcases exactly why you shouldn’t overuse antibiotics.

Vor year
Cosmic Perspective
Cosmic Perspective

@Sean Padden I didn't say the vaccine interferes. You keep steering the conversation in a new direction and ATTEMPTING to twist my words as if to deflect. How about you just explain how the adverse events have happened with your extreme articulation? I meant unknown deaths were the most elevated compared to prior years. Cancer rates remained similar. Also I worked in QC, and the chromatography didn't look good but everyone was to afraid to speak up for fear that if they got in the way of this , they would lose their job during hard economic times. So regardless of how how you believe the mRNA functions, it still comes down to manufacturing it effectively, and I would argue from first hand perspective that manufacturing and quality were leaving a lot to be desired. Yes this is a consequence on of breaking regulations to push these out too fast. The huberis u must have to think you have a complete grasp on this. It's unsettling tbh.

Vor Monat
Cosmic Perspective
Cosmic Perspective

@Sean Padden true but still doesn't invalidate the general and palatable statement I made and also , There have been empirically observed advers side effects, because when you modify the mRNA- protein synthesis mechanism, there can be unwanted flaws in the synthesis of your desired protein. There are intervening mechanisms that are impacted also. Around 2008 an mRNA vaccine was issued to thousands of teens in Europe and there ended up being widespread narcolepsy. The problem is this wasn't refined enough and lacked longitudinal studies during it's early rollout. You know, when the subverted important FDA regulations in order to push these out.

Vor Monat
Rayniac
Rayniac

I wanted to know more about the bacteria strain that learned to consume the citrate. What were the mutations required to do that? Doesn't that require a whole host of new enzymes that in turn require thousands upon thousands of random iterations before they finally start doing "the thing"? It can't have all been just a single mutation...

Vor Tag
Triairius
Triairius

Wow. This is an incredible experiment! So freaking cool!

Vor 20 Tage
Cody Goza
Cody Goza

That professor's passion and the way he explained things made me more interested in science than anything else has before. Very understandable.

Vor 3 Monate
sylvain raynaud
sylvain raynaud

The conclusion on never ending improvement would be interesting to put in perspective by comparing the robustness/adaptability to other environments of the ancestors versus specialized offsprings. Is the most evolved also the most fragile ??

Vor 14 Tage
Just Some Guy without a Mustache
Just Some Guy without a Mustache

A wise man once said: "Life finds a way."

Vor year
360dec!mated
360dec!mated

-Scientist from Jurassic World

Vor 2 Monate
Mr. Cool
Mr. Cool

2

Vor 2 Monate
Naymy
Naymy

And don't forget, a wiser man once wrote it.

Vor 2 Monate
steve steve
steve steve

@Average Alien He's the opposite of wise

Vor 2 Monate
Rique
Rique

No sir, a mustache finds a way.

Vor 3 Monate
Timbraska
Timbraska

The methods of the experiment really show how old it is. Like all that exachaning fluids by hand, analyzing with colours, counting by hand... Still very impressive that he had the resilience to keep it going.

Vor 4 Monate
Michaël Katgerman
Michaël Katgerman

Nice Video 💦 Nice to know that these bacteria (test objects from nature) change in a closed environment and that is "naturally" checked in this laboratory. Have they also tested it with other conditions like light and nutrition that anyone knows? Greetzz MiKa

Vor 5 Monate
Infinite Nothingness
Infinite Nothingness

I love Veritasium's videos. I just can't think about anything else while being glued to my screen and then I realize how much time has passed.

Vor 2 Monate
Sodeep
Sodeep

Cool experiment. My only concern is if human error can be produced faster than bacteria mutation. Too much lab work not to mess it up and contaminate once.

Vor 26 Tage
LittleLight
LittleLight

he was so happy to tell someone about his experiment, made my heart warm xD

Vor year
Idjles Erle
Idjles Erle

And to tell someone who would gift him millions of views.

Vor 4 Monate
Thalassaer
Thalassaer

@sr1nu fix your irritable mood

Vor 7 Monate
twinxcloudy!
twinxcloudy!

@sr1nu xD doesn't mean laugh

Vor 7 Monate
John Giallanza
John Giallanza

Veritasium's videos are always great, but 'bacteria Fight Club' took it to the next level. Bravo!

Vor 3 Monate
Mick ALLEN
Mick ALLEN

Brilliant presentation, very incitefull, evolution is a fascinating topic.

Vor 16 Tage
googleyoutubechannel
googleyoutubechannel

Has Lenski been testing for 'ability to stick to a pipette' fitness? Also, if they haven't already, the biologists in Lenski's lab would benefit from collaboration with with ML experts if their goal is system modeling. ML folks will have a much more sophisticated understanding of how to approach this based on GANs, gradient decent phenomenon, local maximums, degrees of freedom etc.

Vor 4 Tage
SirPano85
SirPano85

I work for the italian agriculture research council (CREA) like an agricultural worker and just to know we too do evolution experiments, for example we took differents populations of ancient grain and we cultiveted in 2 opposite side of Italy (near Bologna and the other one in Sicily), after some years of that the researcher looked what was changed in the two different environment, this is still running so we will see.

Vor 5 Monate
Tomi
Tomi

Thats awesome. Saluti da Slovenia ;)

Vor 2 Monate
Jani Kärkkäinen
Jani Kärkkäinen

I love how Dr. Lenski is really happy and visibly proud of the work he and his team has done, while at the same time giving a very humble and down to earth aura.

Vor year
FiveHiveMind
FiveHiveMind

@Tyrell Wellick So, to sum up, you are claiming that Lenski is either wrong or lying, or am I misunderstanding you?

Vor 8 Monate
FiveHiveMind
FiveHiveMind

@Tyrell Wellick I never said Darwinism wasn't a word. You do realize evolutionary theory is referred to as the modern synthesis, right?

Vor 8 Monate
Vileski Targaff
Vileski Targaff

I wish the video was 2 hours long! so interesting…and I wish that scientist was my professor; his enthusiasm and profoundness is extremely captivating.

Vor 7 Monate
BCOZMUSIC
BCOZMUSIC

Wait so are you telling me, if we had enough solution we could fill the Universe with life in 42 days?! I know it's not exactly that simple but that's pretty mind blowing!

Vor 2 Tage
Thomas Trotter
Thomas Trotter

Fascinating stuff, as usual. Thanks! 👍

Vor 5 Monate
David Schmidt
David Schmidt

It's fascinating to hear a scientist at his level speak is entrancing. He's speaking from sheer, pure, accumulated knowledge and experience.

Vor 5 Monate
Jorge Antonio Hernandez Navarrete
Jorge Antonio Hernandez Navarrete

That freezing bacteria technique, sounds like a Git for biologists.

Vor year
NightEule5
NightEule5

@MASTER nobody Ok? What makes it wrong?

Vor year
NightEule5
NightEule5

pretty much

Vor year
Juan Iglesias
Juan Iglesias

@Vigilant Cosmic Penguin tbh i'm slightly concerned about pushing to master. what if we end up with an e coli super race dominating our citrus fruits?

Vor year
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin

The only difference being you don't have to worry about accidentally pushing something to master.

Vor year
cKay
cKay

@Captainzilla418 actually we can and we already do. With Genetics we can change the DNA of organisms and cells to a point where the DNA has only the Properties which we want and this DNA is then used. We already eat a lot of genetically modified food for example. Bananas for example arent normally yellow, shiny and juicy, they have been modified to have that property and they are selling better than the ancestor banana. Unfortunately though, the gene modification can be dangerous if you dont know the long term effects, that's why we dont use it on animals or plants yet. We just dont know the long term effects yet because Genetics is pretty new to humanity (if i remember correctly the first humans who began with genetics lived in 1960 or something)

Vor year
Ed Ku
Ed Ku

Great enthusiastic scientist. You can tell that he has his whole heart into this project. Thank you.

Vor 5 Monate
ChrisBrengel
ChrisBrengel

Very fortunate is the man (person) who loves his job!

Vor 4 Monate
Mike Hughes
Mike Hughes

At first I thought the fluorescent material would move with the bacteria as in a local pattern. I didn’t realize there’d be this symbiotic relationship with humans…

Vor 5 Monate
13minutestomidnight
13minutestomidnight

This experiment is very informative and provides a lot of data on adaptation over generations, but the COVID-19 pandemic pretty much recreated the experiment, except with humanity as the petri dish. Essentially, with the high human population, and especially the high density living in cities, humans created a situation where the virus had an incredibly high rate of transmission and access to new energy sources when they colonised a person, which allowed the virus to spread and mutate at an exponential rate.  Admittedly, it;s a bit different from the experiment, because the immune system (and later, the vaccines) challenged the colonisation and persistence of the virus within each individual human, and each human had a slightly different assortment of genes that could impact the virus's environmental parameters, but it's pretty similar. Only density of living and protocols for pandemic management (like masks and social distancing) would alter the external circumstances. Well, It's very interesting scientifically, but I'd rather our governments learn from this how easy it is for human communities to become petri dishes for pathogenic microbes, and how to prevent disease clusters from mirroring this experiment. ...Or more accurately: why to listen to their virology and epidemiology experts *cough*

Vor 3 Monate
James Henthorn
James Henthorn

I like this guy. He sounds so enthusiastic and passionate about this experiment, and has clearly gotten quite good at explaining it to people with limited knowledge.

Vor 7 Monate
P
P

Einstein's quote is that if you can't explain something then you don't really understand it. Feynman's quote is that if you want to really understand something then you have to teach it.

Vor 5 Monate
Sciencerely
Sciencerely

As a human biologist, I think there are also astonishing examples of rapid evolution in humans. To give an example, a mutation occurred roughly 20 000 years ago in Europe which made people lactose tolerant. Since lactose tolerance supported survival during repeated periods of starvation, it rapidly spread to different populations and contributed to greater population growth (I made a video about this ). This mutation was so successful that we can find it in the majority of all people of European descent today!

Vor year
Thành Vinh Nguyên Tô
Thành Vinh Nguyên Tô

What? I've always thought lactose intolerance was a rare thing. Milk is just so good

Vor Monat
Jenbo
Jenbo

3@Insertia Nameia You are describing almost exactly my lactose intolerance. I can't drink straight milk but take it in tea. I do avoid yogurts though. Cheeses I used to be able to eat but with age I avoid the softer cheeses like Brie and Camembert and stick to harder cheeses such Cheddar and Edam. I didn't get the runs either but would get a very uncomfortable heavy feeling in the intestine region I didn't throw up except for once when tried milk for the lactose intolerant which had expired, as it didn't taste sour or off I had inadvertently drunk it. Hot chocolate and milkshakes I wouldn't dream of drinking. Nut milks are ok but they come in litre packs which is too much for my consummation as they only keep for 4 to 5 days. I suffer from osteoporosis and my bone doctor told me to eat plenty of dairy products presumably because of the vitamin D content but apparently it is not the best source of vitamin D (D2) as the high proportion of protein content of milk prevents efficient absorption . Much better vitamin D sources are sardines, mackerel cods' liver, salmon (smoked and fresh) and other oily fish - oysters and and probably caviar are quite good too !!! They contain vitamin D3 which is more easily absorbed. Well enough said. Remember that chocolate milk doesn' t come from brown cows.!!

Vor 3 Monate
Jacob O'Neil
Jacob O'Neil

Why do you and your type always conflate macro and micro evolution?

Vor 5 Monate
S.Unosson
S.Unosson

But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?

Vor 5 Monate
RocketJo86
RocketJo86

This is really interesting, because I always imagined evolution as something that just happens. It can be accelerated by events and co-evolution, but it will happen all the time regardless, just by chance. But there seem to be a lot of people put there who can't or won't understand that more or less mathematical part of evolution. I had a discussion in a reddit grou about closed natural ecospheres and that there are some out there which lasted for several decades as of now. And one user wondered if evolution in a closed jar, just getting light as an energy source from the outside will be possible. And for some reason there where two diffrent train of thoughts present within the commentors. One that was unsure, but liked to play with the idea that life in those jars would be able to evolve and adapt. And the other - for some reason bigger - group that absolutly dismissed this idea, as there would be no way of mutating (because there aren't any mutagens or competition happening). But competition doesn't mean predation and they totally forgot that mutation don't necessarily need mutagens, just chance to happen. So there would be no reason not to think that all this algae and bacteria and coepods would not evolve. Sure, they would not start a civilization. But they will adapt to that stable, limited envronment just like the E. Coli did. I guess.

Vor 2 Monate
john doe
john doe

there is competition still? in this instance, the bacteria compete against eachother in the race against time. food isn't the limiting factor. it's time and space. what do you think?

Vor Monat
Cernunnos W.
Cernunnos W.

Great proof of practice in observing evolution. Just take these finds to the next level and applied all living things, and you got good explanations.

Vor 10 Tage
Jason Tufts
Jason Tufts

That would be an experiment worth doing, even if others see it as un-needed knowing why or how evolution takes place and what can come of it can lead to a very important branch of knowledge and hopefully let us understand our own evolution. I do hope their team keeps the experiment running as they chose a medium that evolves far quicker then humans, so it will give far more data. I just hope more interesting data comes out of it in the long run.

Vor 5 Monate
Garrett Reynolds 🇺🇸
Garrett Reynolds 🇺🇸

I’m interested in seeing their sequence data from when they started to now. Edit: From their original strain to the modern strain.

Vor 7 Monate
Sean Padden
Sean Padden

In the published paper they did sequence a few generations of bacteria before the strain that could use citrate and the sequence showed it was a series of mutations that led to the change.

Vor Monat
Indigo
Indigo

This is one of the strangest YouTube sponsorships I've seen in a while. Almost as strange as when literally everyone suddenly made videos about Dyson vacuums a few years ago

Vor year
I'm not arrogant, I'm just better than you.
I'm not arrogant, I'm just better than you.

@Lucien Hughes "No one is getting seriously ill from using reusable dishcloths." No one, really? Wouldn't that depend on how reusable dishcloths are being used and the type of microbes being spread? I assume you have some empirical evidence for your contention.

Vor 7 Monate
Xplora213
Xplora213

Video on viruses... paper towel 🧻 sounds like a great combo to me.

Vor year
Jelmer
Jelmer

@Jake Hix Can't you see whats wrong with your statement? Youre practically saying "This is far more disruptive and wasteful than that, so we should focus on this first before we can work on that" if we want to combat waste and environmental damage we should focus on as much as possible at a time. Because by the time you get to the second problem it would've probably spun out of control by then. By the way.. that means 3.600.000.000 kg's or 7.800.000.000 pounds of paper towels are NOT getting recycled and probably ending up in landfills.. and were talking from the US alone...

Vor year
God 2: Electric Boogaloo
God 2: Electric Boogaloo

didn't veritasium get sponsored by google one time?

Vor year
ggg
ggg

It’s weird that he accepted, knowing that disposables are contributing to global warming

Vor year
Joe Beaudette
Joe Beaudette

This video is wonderful. I actually feel bad for creationists because this… this is divine beauty.

Vor 5 Monate
Doug Narby
Doug Narby

Does mutation in this context mean any difference from the parent cells, or actual mutation due to the impact of an outside agent like cosmic rays, etc?

Vor 5 Monate
xinSANEweTRUSTx
xinSANEweTRUSTx

This channel is awesome! Even the people you interview are so passionate

Vor 3 Monate
PinusMugo
PinusMugo

It is so nice to hear people lifes observations and experiences in science. Powerfull stuff. I learned so much. :)

Vor 5 Monate
Nunya Business
Nunya Business

“progress would probably never stop even in a constant environment” now that is really interesting

Vor year
S.Unosson
S.Unosson

6:15 “Maybe half of those mutations have no effect whatsoever.” 6:32 ”Another half of the mutations may actually be deleterious mutations and they make the bacteria an inferior competitor.” 6:38 “But there is maybe out of those million mutations that occur every day, maybe there is ten, maybe there is a hundred, maybe there is a thousand of them that actually change something in the cell that gives the bacteria a competitive advantage over their progenitors.” 13:44 “If the mutation rate is too high, then the offspring has too many deleterious mutations.” So the overwhelming majority of mutations that occur are either neutral or harmful, so harmful that ‘if the mutation rate is too high, then too many deleterious mutations occur.’ Natural selection acts as well on harmful mutations as on beneficial ones. In other words, the accumulation of harmful mutations must damage the organisms so much that it cannot be compensated by the few beneficial mutations that happen. The original bacteria would have an advantage to survive.

Vor year
OvenCake
OvenCake

@Ladnilsee, I was under the impression that technological progress generally followed an exponential curve, despite the fluctuations from breakthroughs and stagnation. this video suggests that the rate of technological progress will decrease eventually, and improvements in a field will stagnant. if a scientific field is analogous to that constant environment the bacteria are in, then we would expect to find progress will slow down, like having diminishing returns, until that field is expanded and the environment changes.

Vor year
Yvolve
Yvolve

@arisoda But nothing does anything ad infinitum and nothing is ad infinitum, so you're right in theory, but not in practice.

Vor year
Niki Bronson
Niki Bronson

@Kārlis Daugavietis Now that sentiment i agree with (I get the sarcasm). Have a good one.

Vor year
Kārlis Daugavietis
Kārlis Daugavietis

@Niki Bronson sorry, that I did not made my observations on this video clear enough. But now - sorry, I have to go outdoors, so I'll qote some meme: Life is shortMake sure you spend as much time as possible on the internet arguing with strangers about politics.

Vor year
Aidan Killeen
Aidan Killeen

That's incredible! At first, I really didn't think this would be very interesting, but it sure is a good thing that guy kept the project going.

Vor 5 Monate
Godwin Igiri
Godwin Igiri

I wish that they could trace bacterial haplotypes from this experiment. This could clarify some of our assumptions about human haplogroups.

Vor 4 Monate
Motherfucking Dat Boi
Motherfucking Dat Boi

Please make a second part of this!!! The passion of the professor is so inspiring that it left me wanting to keep watching!! Awesome video, awesome explanation.. The statistical bit was so good, it left me thinking what are the predictions going to be!! Could the DNA be mapped in a way in which they could create a model that would predict what would happen if x bacteria made y mutation in z coding region? Run simulations? Really, awesome video. Congratulations.

Vor 7 Monate
Andre Angelo
Andre Angelo

This video was just amazing! Thank you for that!

Vor 5 Monate
Marc Crockett
Marc Crockett

When people are as passionate as Prof. Richard Lenski, you can't help but want to learn/ hear more

Vor 7 Monate
Steve Winans
Steve Winans

is it Richard Lenski?

Vor 6 Tage
Thomas S.
Thomas S.

@John Doe how so?

Vor 5 Monate
John Doe
John Doe

Sad that such passion is under full-scale assault in the West.

Vor 5 Monate
XerxesTheCommuter
XerxesTheCommuter

He has a wonderful mind.

Vor 5 Monate
Stephen Collins
Stephen Collins

Now I'm wondering if you can model these populations with a logistic map in some way...

Vor 2 Monate
YoniMek
YoniMek

I like how the researcher at the end gets so excited by the extrapolation power of his power curve. Still, a profound finding.

Vor 4 Monate
Mars
Mars

Comment about the sponsor: keep in mind that dish cloths are more friendly to the environment, so it's better to use them to clean casual messes, instead of constantly using paper towels that sometimes aren't biodegradable, or aren't recycled. Using soap to clean the dish cloth regularly should eliminate the bacteria problem in most cases. But ofc, sometimes using paper towels is better, specially for certain messes like cleaning up after using the toilet, cleaning messes from pets , cleaning certain toxic materials, nail polish, or anything that permanently damages the dish cloth or whatever cloth you use.

Vor 5 Monate
Ashurean
Ashurean

I was actually going to comment something along these lines. I feel it's better to have a bunch of towels that you cycle through and wash than to keep buying disposable towels into perpetuity.

Vor 15 Tage
Mark Witucke
Mark Witucke

Towels rubbed with white soap, then into a weak bleach solution at the end of each day. Bacteria problem solved. —A Cook

Vor 20 Tage
Isaac Douglas
Isaac Douglas

This video was super cool!! Would love to see more videos on the mechanics of evolution

Vor 5 Monate
Vlach
Vlach

because it doesn't exist

Vor 5 Monate
Daveo Spurple
Daveo Spurple

I could listen to Prof. Richard Lenski talk about evolution for hours. I love hearing someone passionately talk about something they love.

Vor year
marw
marw

True

Vor year
stokkie01
stokkie01

Fully agree, he is really passionate about this. I can imagine that it is really hard for him to talk about this in real life. People that do not understand the subject or are not interested.

Vor year
PrinceJack
PrinceJack

The part of the video that talks about E. coli evolving to consume citrate rang a bell for me. I think I heard about this before in video debunking creationism. But I have to ask - is that bacterium still E. coli, or is it fair to say that it is an entirely new species?

Vor Monat
Late
Late

Taxonomy is especially hard when it comes to bacteria, because they don't reproduce sexually.

Vor 21 Tag
Soham Acharya
Soham Acharya

A subspecies perhaps, but I doubt an entirely new species. Taxonomy is hard.

Vor 26 Tage
ליאם אברהם
ליאם אברהם

Hypothetically, if the experiment would go on for millions of years, maybe even billions, unstopped and uninterrupted, is it possible that one mutation would develop such as much as the one contributing to the evolution of the entire species on earth? Would another kind of human beings be able to develop in such a theoretical experiment under the same conditions? That's quite interesting, to say the least...

Vor 4 Tage
Gandalf
Gandalf

You need a natural selector (unnatural selection is not allowed due to we can't interfere), so under the same conditions mutations will occur but they will not be selected unless conditions change.

Vor 2 Tage
Who the He** do you think I am?
Who the He** do you think I am?

A meticulous process that takes pure dedication.

Vor 4 Monate
venki Perni
venki Perni

Thank you for sharing this with the world.

Vor 4 Monate
a s
a s

It is so incredibly satisfying to hear a relaxed researcher talk. Great interview!

Vor year
Dildo Shwaggins
Dildo Shwaggins

Idk how hes so relaxed knowing hes growing literal super ecoli

Vor year
Elle van Veelen
Elle van Veelen

You might like the youtuber The Thought Emporium in that case.

Vor year
S F
S F

I agree. It would have been totally different if he was talking in the lab

Vor year
Spiritman Productions
Spiritman Productions

Makes me wonder what the final bacterium will be, and, by extension, how you might define the perfect cell.

Vor 3 Monate
karthikeyan M.V
karthikeyan M.V

But goku will get to super sayan 3 will defeat it

Vor Monat
Anonny Anonymous
Anonny Anonymous

Perfect Cell? Ask Goku how that ended.

Vor 3 Monate
L P
L P

@anulbonecrusher It is a key, but not because of that reason. The main problem is that of self-reference. The perfect bacterium would be the one that no matter what mutation happened to its offspring, the parent could outcompete it. The trouble for the parent is to be able to model all of these possible descendants and devise the optimal competitive strategy depending on their particular functional enhancement. That probably cannot be done genetically, due to the sheer complexity, meaning the genome would need to be massive or work like an immune system of trial and error, which takes time and space. The (or at least one possible) solution is a computational system, for example our nervous tissue of maybe what some plants use to decide on a mycorrhizal relationship (if they have any say at all!).. Point is: multicellular need. The solution is that the perfect bacterium is not a bacterium anymore. This may be why things like us exist. Just my thoughts, may be wrong. Let me know.

Vor 3 Monate
anulbonecrusher
anulbonecrusher

There isn't, that's the key. Its environmentally based, suggesting a perfect environment is possible, which if so, would likely be competitionless and therefore you create a paradox where there's no evolution that could start it either

Vor 3 Monate
Ondra Pšenička
Ondra Pšenička

Even in the absence of an environmental change, there are so many opportunities of smaller and smaller magnitude to continue to make progress that in fact progress would probably NEVER stop even in a constant environment. So much understanding in one sentence...

Vor 3 Monate
David Spector
David Spector

Yes, it's how we evolved from bacteria-like progenitors, and how further evolution will produce even better adaptable organisms millions of years in the future, if we survive current and future challenges at all.

Vor 2 Monate
Anki
Anki

If I may add my modest pow to the experiment, wouldn't be interesting to give the E.Coli bacteria some challenges to overcome? Like adding an hostile element in the solution or other type of obstacles. If the solution is a perfect environment for the bacteria to reproduce, then it has less way to keep a mutation that could prove effective against certain types of enemies or hostile environments. The way I understand this experiment, is that the Bacteria is comfortably sitting on a couch while it gets fed generation after generation. Maybe providing a challenge would made it easier to spot, or even encourage mutations! Then again, I'm nobody. Fascinating experiment nonetheless :)

Vor 3 Monate
Robert Bolding
Robert Bolding

as an example, Streptococcus pyogenes has been treated with penicillin for 70 years and is always 100 percent of the time killed by it. it only survives when it stops dividing by another mechanism not related to antibiotics.

Vor 5 Monate
Birding with Rishabh Ghoshal
Birding with Rishabh Ghoshal

I hope this team gets recognised for the way in which they have experimentally proven some of the postulates we take for granted, in Biology. Keeping a Biology experiment running for 33 years, with constant monitoring of conditions, is no joke.

Vor year
TravisBickle Popsicle
TravisBickle Popsicle

@Doug Stevens That's true, I don't have 100% certainty that there is no Designer. No one knows one way or the other, really, which is why I don't understand how some people claim with 100% certainty that there is a Designer.

Vor 11 Monate
TravisBickle Popsicle
TravisBickle Popsicle

@Doug Stevens Now you're telling me what my own opinions are. How do you think that's gonna work out for you? 'A designer is not clearly observable in the product' Right. No evidence. Maybe it's just your opinion that a designer was involved?

Vor 11 Monate
Oleran
Oleran

I wonder if any of those mutations could be profoundly beneficial to humans.

Vor 4 Monate
Lachie Perrem
Lachie Perrem

I don't care how many times I watched veritasium videos they always blow my mind

Vor 3 Monate
Seth N.
Seth N.

The amount of bacteria solution needed by day 42 requiring enough volume to fill our entire universe is INSANE

Vor 7 Monate
Cherri Berri
Cherri Berri

WOAH! Pure chance, but as soon as I heard citrate was in the solution I thought to myself that that would be a secondary carbon source and that they'd oughtta keep an eye on it. Awesome!

Vor 3 Monate
Leo_Valdez
Leo_Valdez

Hi Derek I just wanted to tell you that I really appreciate what you’re doing and that I love watching your content. They’re always so interesting and I love the way you present it! Can’t wait for 10M!

Vor year
Kunjukunju nil
Kunjukunju nil

@mustard roshi "Time moves differently in TVA"😆😆

Vor year
rick barajas
rick barajas

I wanna like your comment but it's @420

Vor year
Leo_Valdez
Leo_Valdez

@An Unjust Peace / A Just War It’s a thought experiment / a hypothetical situation. There’s nothing stupid about pondering over thought experiments, because their sole purpose is for speculation, not real-life problem solving.

Vor year
Leo_Valdez
Leo_Valdez

@An Unjust Peace / A Just War huh wdym it was a great video!

Vor year
ricrometv1
ricrometv1

I didn’t get if the bacteria managed to evolve the ability to consume the second source of energy again or not. Thoughts?

Vor 6 Monate
unholy7
unholy7

I love seeing people discuss something they are passionate about. I'll listen. I don't care if it's star wars or bacteria.

Vor 5 Monate
murderdogg
murderdogg

7:57 looks like a -80°C freezer to me. Also, Veritasium channel and Derek are really, really on the top level of Youtube science vids.

Vor 5 Monate
Dale Dreyer
Dale Dreyer

Would love to see the nucleic acid sequences of various generation.

Vor 5 Monate
Mickelodian Surname
Mickelodian Surname

they are published... not all of them since there are literally millions of individuals... but as far as I know lots of them have been sequenced and uploaded to genbank. These bacteria have a fairly small genome.

Vor 5 Monate
Sean Cullen
Sean Cullen

This video is a great example of why we should never stop funding basic science.

Vor year
Tyrell Wellick
Tyrell Wellick

@Fat Birb Yes there are many articles blogs and videos out there that have claimed to refute ID but haven’t. So if you could link just a few I’d be more than happy to refute them. 😂

Vor year
Tyrell Wellick
Tyrell Wellick

@Fat Birb Also don’t come at me with that not having an open mind bs. I have a far more open mind than you ever will. I follow the evidence where it leads. You follow a belief system based solely on blind faith that isn’t even science.

Vor year
Tyrell Wellick
Tyrell Wellick

@Fat Birb ID isn’t creationism. It’s an inference based on scientific evidence. Darwinism is a failed theory. I know it can be hard to leave a belief system that has been so engrained in our culture but as time goes on we are finding more and more problems with Darwinian theory. If blind unguided natural processes or (A blind watchmaker) can’t be our creator then a personal intelligence is the only plausible conclusion.

Vor year
Fat Birb
Fat Birb

@Tyrell Wellick "Pro-Darwin lobby groups" are you for real? And you're going to bash both mainstream science AND the trial? ID may not have been refuted, but that is because it had no basis in the first place. It's a fairy tale that rests on the belief in a magical creator, and even if it was magically proven true, there's no way to discern which creator from which religion ID would stem from. Clearly, nothing will convince you that ID is false and that God is a lie. I guess no one should expect an open, scientific mind from a creationist.

Vor year
superGMoney
superGMoney

I would check out updates on this daily!! Have they started to eat through the plastic yet? Hold on I have a knock at the door - It's the bacteria!!! Seriously tho this experiment needs it's own channel! ❤ G

Vor 3 Monate
Kokonut Binks
Kokonut Binks

We went over this experiment in our college Evolution course a few weeks ago.

Vor 4 Monate
Leo B
Leo B

Imagine when one of the bacteria decides to eat glass. Anyway, that was an amazing video and experiment!

Vor 5 Monate
Mickelodian Surname
Mickelodian Surname

There are bacteria that have evolved to consume polymers like plastic... glass is a rather unique structure but it does contain silicates and potash and limestone... You can force bacteria to select for gaining energy from those things. So yeah, thats not as far fetched as you might think. WHY anyone would find it useful I have no idea. Generally speaking its a lot cheaper to simply genetically modify bacteria these days without going through millions of generations of evolutionary selection.

Vor 5 Monate
Sanjay Pandey
Sanjay Pandey

The video was awesome and all, but the thing that most surprised me is Veritasium's (or even Youtube's) evolution. Never had I expected to see such a short sponsor.

Vor 4 Monate
Plum Amazing
Plum Amazing

It sounds like the bacteria developed telepathy strong enough to get these humans to work to feed them yummy stuff for 30 years.

Vor year
TheGreatMoonFrog
TheGreatMoonFrog

This was life's long term game. Evolve some bacteria that can work together and eventually create complex life. Then have those complex colonies of bacteria evolve in complexity until the colonies start working together with other colonies. Keep doing that until some colonies of bacteria are so complex they want to feed the single celled bacteria in perfectly safe utopias. Long term victory.

Vor 2 Monate
Fuzzy Ankles
Fuzzy Ankles

when you look at that TED talk about bacteria communication.... its not so far from truth. "How bacteria "talk" - Bonnie Bassler"

Vor year
Rodrigo Bittar
Rodrigo Bittar

If that's the case, that'll be a damn risky game for bacteria. I mean all of them developing telepathy for only 1% of them actually getting any yummy stuff. The rest 99% of them went to bacterial crematory 🔥.

Vor year
Sakata Gintoki
Sakata Gintoki

1.5 million years in bacteria timeline

Vor year
A K
A K

lol

Vor year
DCMPSaliva
DCMPSaliva

This is really and interesting and cool, I really hope they don’t do this with a virus and accidentally release it

Vor 6 Monate
Fish
Fish

Great example of micro evolution. After that many generations you still have e.coli.

Vor 5 Monate
giveme5mins
giveme5mins

Oh wow! Hyper Mutabilty. Love these segments that talk about, (power law), models we only hear about in school.

Vor 5 Monate
Lead_metal
Lead_metal

I really want this to keep going for a really long time until eventually (this probably wouldn’t happen) they evolve to eat each other and it turns into something completely different

Vor 5 Monate
Scenic Fights
Scenic Fights

Science is so fascinating. Prof. Richard Lenski is just so easy to listen to. Great job guys!

Vor year
Sophie Robinson
Sophie Robinson

30 years in the lab. Wonder what he looked like when he started? A straight-backed young man of thirty, with dark brown hair and no beard?

Vor year
Holar
Holar

@Arthur Marcil 8:35

Vor year
Jackson Daly
Jackson Daly

@Arañay Unsombrero to

Vor year
izzzy
izzzy

i want him to be my grandpa so i can listen to him talk about microbiology all day

Vor year
Rifqi Jalu Pramudita
Rifqi Jalu Pramudita

Agree. English is my 2nd language and I'm not even from microbiology or medical background but I fully understand his explanation. Way to go!

Vor year
sounddoctorin
sounddoctorin

we're watching 'programmed adaptation'. I pointed this out when the 2000 generation e, coli exp, 1st took place. I suggested multiple repeats if sane exp, to see if a 'random' mutation was really the cause. Since result showed 12-13% improved cell population, that means IF random then outcomes should vary wildly. 1st improved cell occurring early on could overwhelm the population in 1900 generations for example. But as the tried, same result always happened instead!

Vor Tag
sounddoctorin
sounddoctorin

ps. if you think independent kinds evolved, you don't know the science. My 'current species population argument' on my channel shows the species density is way too low for evolutionary progression.

Vor Tag
J
J

8:21 “And that gives us an ability called time travel.” -A wise man

Vor Monat
mpalmer22
mpalmer22

Interesting experiment, not sure what else we learn from it other then how bacteria adapts to its environment. I don't think we can expect these cells to start sprouting legs and arms no matter how much time you give it.

Vor 3 Monate
Human Games
Human Games

How do you know when you mix them during the incubation that they dont change color to what you mixed them with?

Vor 4 Monate

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