The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained

  • Am Vor year

    VeritasiumVeritasium

    Dauer: 14:48

    Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation.
    Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: ve42.co/LP
    References:
    Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: ve42.co/Tao
    The Twisting Tennis Racket
    Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489
    Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics
    Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. doi.org/10.1134/S1028335813080041
    Tumbling Asteroids
    Prave et al. doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.021
    The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods
    SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084-2112
    E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna
    doi.org/10.1137/070704393
    Animations by Iván Tello and Isaac Frame
    Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me:
    Astronaut Don Pettit
    Henry Reich of MinutePhysics
    Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown
    Vert Dider (Russian DE-film channel)
    Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not:
    In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant.
    However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible.
    Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.

Android480
Android480

Intuitive is a stretch, but its damn good.

Vor 4 Stunden
Mike Farmer
Mike Farmer

Learned this from a Carpenter back in sixties with a hammer...

Vor 6 Stunden
Robert Boisvert
Robert Boisvert

Very cool. Curious if freezing or damning all the water to a high enough point could impact the Earth enough for a Dzhanibekov effect.

Vor 13 Stunden
Nicco Saur
Nicco Saur

It’s unfortunate that he doesn’t know they are two different effects

Vor 14 Stunden
Jonas Skanning
Jonas Skanning

does that mean before the earth was stabilized it actually flipped?

Vor 15 Stunden
Saivivekh Swaminathan
Saivivekh Swaminathan

uh... you said 'intuitive explanation'... smh...

Vor 15 Stunden
Hank Phillips
Hank Phillips

This explains polar shifting of planetary bodies as they move through space.

Vor 15 Stunden
vikash gupta
vikash gupta

This might explain tilt of uranus

Vor 16 Stunden
Chris Ralph
Chris Ralph

So the theory in the book "Down To A Sunless Sea" is wrong? The story goes that, in a nuclear war, if nuclear warheads detonate at the same point relative to the Earth's orbit, giving a large "nudge" to the Earth, precession will cause the Earth to tilt on its axis.

Vor 22 Stunden
Legazonia
Legazonia

Yo guys, regarding this strange behavior and the earth, check out the declassified document called "The Adam and Eve Story"

Vor Tag
Douglas Chitwood
Douglas Chitwood

Men! Get ready 2 Get Funky..... We About to be all one color! Tops my day....

Vor Tag
Rich Garella
Rich Garella

I know I'm out on a limb here, but I don't quite believe that this effect is causing the tennis racket (or phone) flip. The racket or phone flips immediately, every time, even though it is heavier than a wing nut. Well, your typical wing nut. Isn't it more likely that the tennis racket flip just results from our inability to send it up without spinning it a bit? If you try tumbling it with both hands you can make it flip without spinning. It's not easy though.

Vor Tag
Douglas Chitwood
Douglas Chitwood

NICE! THANKA MON!

Vor Tag
Jack hammer
Jack hammer

This is all fine and dandy, but, could we please do a follow up, if there already isn't one, that takes into consideration the magnetic fields and there influence

Vor Tag
Jorge Chávez
Jorge Chávez

But could we put a giant nut at the north pole and it would turn right? lol

Vor Tag
Michael Kendler
Michael Kendler

Isn’t the same argument with the centrifugal force also true for rotation around the max inertia axis...why is it stable?

Vor Tag
SomeOne
SomeOne

So an old aged asteroid must spin at its axis of maximum moment of inertia... And if it doesn't it must be recently created

Vor Tag
SomeOne
SomeOne

1:58 I do that every single day yet never noticed it

Vor Tag
SomeOne
SomeOne

This guy hits millions on every videos

Vor Tag
Arch Stanton
Arch Stanton

You should flip it mechanically eliminate human imput

Vor Tag
Jeff Byrer
Jeff Byrer

Why not just use a tennis racket

Vor Tag
Sana omar
Sana omar

if we build something build or excavate some huge quantities of earth , for mining purposes ,of course . we could achieve such a disaster .

Vor Tag
Grgazola
Grgazola

Shouldn't the explanation include the cause of small imbalances, the same as with the butterfly effect or other seemingly chaotic movements such as convection?

Vor Tag
Michael Mills
Michael Mills

The Earth may BE STABLE, but you sir , are not...

Vor Tag
Michael Mills
Michael Mills

I hate ppl who pronounce it " cent re "fuge" al' force! Aside from spelling its PRONOUNCED ' CENT TRIF I CAL' FORCE. EVERY AMERICAN AGREES.

Vor Tag
Lucas Kman
Lucas Kman

Best Mathematician alive? You've not seen my maths teacher I guess.

Vor 2 Tage
Justin Credible
Justin Credible

BUT.... that's cgi... ;-)

Vor 2 Tage
Jishnu Rajeev
Jishnu Rajeev

I want earth to fcuking flip... Boring blue ball of water has done nothing cool yet

Vor 2 Tage
MARIN
MARIN

Finally the Earth will remain stable. Gosh! – I was so worried about that.

Vor 2 Tage
Joseph Caldwell
Joseph Caldwell

So in theory, if nothing ever "bumps" the object off the Y axis, this effect would not happen?

Vor 2 Tage
Emmanuel Lehuu
Emmanuel Lehuu

And if it never flips, thats proof the earth is round (more or less, my point being it isnt flat) so show this video to flat earthers ;)

Vor 3 Tage
Tatu Race 150
Tatu Race 150

this disk has more 8 years, you video here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDr26U49_VA

Vor 3 Tage
Lerogi Z
Lerogi Z

Okay, okay. I’m finally watching it.

Vor 3 Tage
Daniel Loiselle
Daniel Loiselle

We’ll literally all flip out if global warming melts the ice caps..

Vor 3 Tage
Dre Mack
Dre Mack

All I could see was Booker T doing the Spinnerooni.

Vor 3 Tage
Roman Romero
Roman Romero

i wish my girlfriend wouldn't flip too 😂

Vor 3 Tage
Brad Cornwell
Brad Cornwell

Sooooooooo, does this mean that Arthur C Clarke's "Rama" wouldn't be possible?

Vor 3 Tage
Meow Milev
Meow Milev

Hmmmm i might introduce these to my new sling shot coaster!

Vor 3 Tage
Awreccan
Awreccan

8:24 but what causes the initial "bumping" of the disc that causes the small masses to lose alignment with the y axis?

Vor 4 Tage
DubDanTV
DubDanTV

0:48 Name of the movie?

Vor 4 Tage
Alethea Black
Alethea Black

Does anyone think that the wing nut, while attached to the screw, is *actually* magically flipping back and forth? This is a vivid testament to EMERGENCE THEORY; it supports the ground-breaking work of scientists such as Donald Hoffman and Klee Irwin, who argue for the brain's active involvement in *composing* what we see.

Vor 4 Tage
Jean Albus Persévérance
Jean Albus Persévérance

Exactly what I thought but much better verbalized, thanks for your explanation. :-)

Vor 4 Tage
Scott P
Scott P

Easy to see in real life. Flip a hammer. Done.

Vor 4 Tage
Konstantin Askinadze
Konstantin Askinadze

how would a tetraeder behave?

Vor 4 Tage
leohobb leohobb
leohobb leohobb

I think it is stupid and naive to trust passwords to a server company or web service.Last pass promoting is stupidity on nitro in my opinion.The rest of your video was ok with smart teori explained.

Vor 4 Tage
Caleb Cain
Caleb Cain

I have two questions about this, and maybe you, or somebody else reading these comments, would be able to answer them. 1. Out of curiosity, hypothetically, if the planet did flip, given the information you've explained, and the time it takes to complete one rotation along the normal axis of rotation (one day, of course.) how long would it take to flip? 2. What changes to the inertial points of the earth would occur if, let's somewhat less hypothetically say, we go from having a large mass of ice at each end to having a landmass at one end and ocean at the other with the ice distributed over the planet in the form of water? I'll be honest, I'd love to tease out these questions myself, but I'm notoriously incompetent with higher math, and whatever I came up with would probably not be reliably accurate, even if I did manage to find an answer, so I thought I'd throw this out and see if anybody is more up to the task than I am.

Vor 4 Tage
Caleb Cain
Caleb Cain

SIde-note: I love your channel. Keep up the great work.

Vor 4 Tage
Alethea Black
Alethea Black

And here is the quote that describes it, by Lawrence M. Krauss: "But when you look at CMB map, you also see that the structure that is observed, is in fact, in a weird way, correlated with the plane of the earth around the sun. Is this Copernicus coming back to haunt us? That's crazy. We're looking out at the whole universe. There's no way there should be a correlation of structure with our motion of the earth around the sun - the plane of the earth around the sun - the ecliptic. That would say we are truly the center of the universe. The new results are either telling us that all of science is wrong and we're the center of the universe, or maybe the data is (s)imply incorrect, or maybe it's telling us there's something weird about the microwave background results and that maybe, maybe there's something wrong with our theories on the larger scales.”

Vor 4 Tage
Alethea Black
Alethea Black

The earth, the universe, indeed the multiverse routinely "flip." It is our perspective that is flipping. Here is the image of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): https://arstechnica.com/science/2014/03/is-the-universe-lopsided/2/

Vor 4 Tage
Alethea Black
Alethea Black

This is brilliant. Thank you, Derek Muller. Whether the earth were to "actually flip" is a question inseparable from an observer. Indeed, there is substantial evidence from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that the entire universe "flips" routinely along the ecliptic; see the alternating hot-and-cold pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), sometimes referred to as the "axis of evil" (because its implications could force us to rethink everything we believe we know about physics). Could centripetal and centrifugal forces, and the role of "an observer" have anything to do with human health? I explore this and more in my recent presentation (23-min) at the Science of Consciousness Conference. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dws-3gNzyZ4

Vor 4 Tage
Food Farm
Food Farm

Ok time to add more mass to the north pole

Vor 4 Tage
Matthew28 Apologetics
Matthew28 Apologetics

So what about an airplane propeller and its effect

Vor 4 Tage
Dennis G
Dennis G

I have seen this same effect with a kicked field goal (American football), look at the rotation and flip in slow motion, the laces rotate end over end as well....

Vor 4 Tage
Mans Ativo
Mans Ativo

Oh my i've been doing that on my phone cause it was cool. Flipping it then when I catch it, it faces backwards.

Vor 4 Tage
Chris Tashik
Chris Tashik

Very interesting. The Earth flipping idea reminds me of a spinning bowling ball. The internal core of a bowling ball is meant to make the ball “wobble” which allows for a different surface to contact the lane with each revolution. As someone who use to drill bowling balls for a living I know that with some lines and math this can be overcome and the ball can be drilled so that a specific user can roll it and the ball will rotate around only one axis. (Creating more or less hook)

Vor 4 Tage
SuperSupermario24
SuperSupermario24

I would have appreciated it if you covered the other axes of rotation in the same way, showing why the same centrifugal forces wouldn't have been present in the other scenarios.

Vor 4 Tage
Achim Kandler
Achim Kandler

Hi, about the earth possibly being able to flip, your explanation that it behaves like an ateroid is not convincing. Look at the examples with the bottles filled with liquid. In the case of the earth it is also filled with liquid. And it has an atmosphere attached to it. With all these things together it looks to me it could flip. And we might already be in the very middle of it. The axis of the earth is tilted which is the reason we have seasons. Now this might or might not be connected. But I think it's too early to void the possibility it's happening to earth :-)

Vor 5 Tage
ameer hanani
ameer hanani

prophet muhammad said : "The Hour (the judgment day ) will not be established until the sun rises from the West. (6.158). Sahih al-Bukhari.

Vor 5 Tage
eppie design
eppie design

In balance !!

Vor 5 Tage
pkgfx.
pkgfx.

Who else just started flipping their phones??

Vor 5 Tage
Thomas Johnston
Thomas Johnston

Grabbed a book instead

Vor 15 Stunden
Christopher Franko
Christopher Franko

He concludes the video with "the earth is spinning at its maximum moment of inertia which is stable" but.. the earth is changing. Ice caps are melting, land masses are moving.. couldnt the conditions change in a way that causes the flip one day?

Vor 5 Tage
Christopher Franko
Christopher Franko

As soon as I saw the object flipping i immediately thought "is earth going to do this one day?" and then my fears were allayed. 10/10 would watch again.

Vor 5 Tage
Ashwni Kumar
Ashwni Kumar

very interesting video

Vor 5 Tage
Pedro Viana
Pedro Viana

I wonder how much mass would need to be moved from the equator to the poles so as to change the axis with the maximum moment of inertia.

Vor 5 Tage
giuseppe d
giuseppe d

which tools have you used for animations?

Vor 6 Tage
DAY S
DAY S

In the quran 1400 yeats ago allah say the sun will rise from the sunset that time it doesn't matter if u become believer it's done

Vor 6 Tage
jalbert222
jalbert222

I had to stop listening half way through. Cen tri FU gal forces? It is pronounced Cen TRI fi gal. Geeez.

Vor 6 Tage
jalbert222
jalbert222

Good point and G'day :)

Vor 4 Tage
Stephen Parkinson
Stephen Parkinson

Not here matey. Two nations divided by a common language ;-)

Vor 6 Tage
Henry Henchion
Henry Henchion

So earth won’t flip bc it already flipped

Vor 6 Tage
Archangel Raphael
Archangel Raphael

so is the intermediate axis theorem an explanation for the *tippe top* that befuddled physicists like Pauli and Bohr? https://kachina2012.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/chess-the-game-of-life-and-the-tippee-top/

Vor 6 Tage
Archangel Raphael
Archangel Raphael

AHA an anomaly that involves invoking centrifugal forces ... nice

Vor 6 Tage
Lorenzo Carelli apd
Lorenzo Carelli apd

This is the 4th time I am watching this, and finally I understand it

Vor 6 Tage
christopher welsh
christopher welsh

Years ago, I did once flip a tennis racket without it making that 1/2 turn. Once.

Vor 6 Tage
diecast jam
diecast jam

It could be called the remote control effect too. When I sit in bed watching TV I have a habit of flipping the remote control, and it always does this half rotation too, it's always intrigued me in a minor sort of way. I will try my best to not let it rotate by flipping it different ways, but no it still does the half rotation thing. Funny when I noticed it flipping the remote, I don't think it was that novel, I'm pretty sure it's something I have witnessed before in other things, probably the tennis racket.

Vor 6 Tage
cj valverde
cj valverde

This something stupid you would learn in school that has 0% help later in life

Vor 6 Tage
S Grim
S Grim

So earth, being partially liquid, will flip something approaching 90 degrees then.. (when the next ice-age puts enough ice-masses at the poles to force a flip towards the equator)

Vor 6 Tage
Jibran Saleem
Jibran Saleem

what if there was no disturbance at all in the intermediate axis as if it was spinning properly

Vor 6 Tage
Alex Ford
Alex Ford

Great video. I like intuitive answers rather than mathematic equations, etc., which I really do not trust regardless of how sophisticated their proofs. I love the intermediate, maximum moment and minimum moments of inertia. For some reason, this reminds me of Tesla, and I don't know why. AF

Vor 7 Tage
Thomas Kolb
Thomas Kolb

Hm, so this phenomenon is actually caused by the rotation not being perfectly aligned, but slightly bumped out of alignment. If the rotation was perfect (like mathematically perfect) it actually wouldn't happen. But in the real world, even the smallest (and I mean on a microscopic scale) misalignment will slowly accumulate and at some time (say, like after a million rotations) suddenly flip over to rotate yet another million rotations until the next flip... Interesting.

Vor 7 Tage
Justin Erickson
Justin Erickson

I learned two things that only bring on more questions. 1. Learned that spinning things in space are not necessarily stable. 2. Most people pronounce "centrifugal" force differently than this obviously very smart guy. Mind blown.

Vor 7 Tage
No Username
No Username

Is this why earth’s poles are moving?

Vor 7 Tage
Sergio Ontiveros
Sergio Ontiveros

Would it even matter if the earth flipped over? I mean would we even notice such an event? Or would the centrifugal force send anyone near the north and south pole flying into the sky? The reason i ask is because if i understand correctly, as the earth spins the surface can move at roughly 1600kmph and we dont seem to feel that, so if the earth suddenly flipped would we even notice it?

Vor 7 Tage
tiger12506
tiger12506

Fascinating. So now I understand those toy tops that flip over when you spin them, or my phone which spins ok, but then violently wobbles, or why I am forced to anticipate the tennis racket flip. Really good video.

Vor 7 Tage
Dick Hansen
Dick Hansen

Love the way he explained this. So easy to understand.

Vor 7 Tage
BOBXFILES2374a
BOBXFILES2374a

Thank you, Professor Proton!!

Vor 7 Tage
BOBXFILES2374a
BOBXFILES2374a

This video keeps coming up i the sidebar. Much more interesting than I expected. The math, however, is nothing but meaningless squiggles to me!

Vor 7 Tage
Ls Sl
Ls Sl

How does that work with earth spinning

Vor 7 Tage
Nick Naccarato
Nick Naccarato

This video terrified me for a hot minute

Vor 7 Tage
raulsgomes
raulsgomes

Earth isnt going to flip if nothing interfers with its axis of inertia. But if something with a very big mass passes by..... This is mass, but what about the change of the magnetosphere? Why does it happen?

Vor 7 Tage
Slim ben frej
Slim ben frej

In coran god tel . It s same day the sun rises in the west Think you god for this religion Dans le coran . Dieu dit . Que un jour la soleil se lève de l ouest Merci dieux pou cette religion . Peace for the humanity La paix pour l humanité.

Vor 7 Tage
federico casabona
federico casabona

@veritasium, if humans decided to finally build the famous space elevator, so tall that would exit the orbit of the earth, would this elevator dissipate energy and eventually turn earth like happened with Explorer 1?

Vor 7 Tage
Tungsten Kid
Tungsten Kid

Did he explain why the wingnut flipped or did i miss it?

Vor 7 Tage
Rex Mccrea
Rex Mccrea

thanks for removing my need for showing up to phisichs class anymore

Vor 7 Tage
Sadique Khan
Sadique Khan

Actually yes the earth will flip one day and the sun will rise from the west - then its all over for everyone

Vor 7 Tage
Trash Trash
Trash Trash

Proof that social media! is spying on us my dad was just talking about this at the table and I said that’s cool. I turn on my phone and guess what’s in my YouTube recommended??? This video

Vor 7 Tage
Brandon
Brandon

That’s not how proof works.

Vor 6 Tage
namya rao
namya rao

So the earth won't flip ....cuz it has already flipped ....?

Vor 7 Tage
Walter Naiman
Walter Naiman

I think the earth is spinning ,and that cause the climate change.

Vor 7 Tage
jgoldes
jgoldes

Did we all wonder if this happens to the human body? I did, then I saw this tic tok video: https://www.tiktok.com/@vauult/video/6879832822664662274?sender_device=pc&sender_web_id=6880323289413027333&is_from_webapp=1 They guy is impressive, but eventually wipes out, I'm guessing for the same reason that this tennis racket flips.

Vor 7 Tage
K narf
K narf

Not sure earth can't flip on that hypothesis, since we already have a wobble I didn't see you account for. Doesn't that indicate imbalance?

Vor 7 Tage
Marco Maltese
Marco Maltese

The explanation of why the containers stop rotating about the main axis is wrong. The real reason is that the liquid inside goes to the POLES, catalizing the mass there, and thus reducing the weight on the other axis. So why a rocket does not invert its spin axis, while a bolt does? because the bolt has a larger base than the axis. All the examples show this. Geometry of the object is important here. A rocket is thin and long, thus the secondary axes of rotation are ininfluent: their centrifugal force is nearly null in relation to the mass. If you would add enough rotation though, it could invert its spin. A sphere will never invert its spin axis. The reason is easy: there is no secondary axis. A disc example is the same. Also, resonance is another factor to put in that was not considered at all in the video. Especially for small objects, resonance is a major factor that would push the object to invert its axis of rotation by cumulating power on the secondary axis at each roll, when the conditions are met.

Vor 7 Tage
Big-J
Big-J

What would happen to a washing machine in space, during the spin cycle?

Vor 7 Tage
Pancake Dave
Pancake Dave

Gyro Zeppeli teaching Johnny Joestar the power of spin

Vor 7 Tage

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