The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies

  • Am Vor 4 years

    VeritasiumVeritasium
    subscribers: 14 Mio.

    Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation.
    Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: ve42.co/LP
    References:
    Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: ve42.co/Tao
    The Twisting Tennis Racket
    Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489
    Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics
    Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. doi.org/10.1134/S102833581308...
    Tumbling Asteroids
    Prave et al. doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004...
    The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods
    SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084-2112
    E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna
    doi.org/10.1137/070704393
    Animations by Ivy Tello and Isaac Frame
    Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me:
    Astronaut Don Pettit
    Henry Reich of MinutePhysics
    Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown
    Vert Dider (Russian DE-film channel)
    Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not:
    In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant.
    However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible.
    Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.

qfmarsh64 +1327
qfmarsh64

As a kid, I would frequently watch my dad flipping the TV remote control in his hand and studying the inevitable half-turn in its flight pattern. He concluded that his wrist was subtly imparting spin. If he were alive today, his mind would probably be blown watching this video.

Vor year
ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı +19
ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı

aww that's so cool

Vor year
Elgoog +98
Elgoog

"He concluded that his wrist was subtly imparting spin." Well, as we've learned in your video, your dad was right

Vor year
Michael Roast +23
Michael Roast

Cannot tell you how many hours I have done this with a TV remote too, trying to get a straight flip. Futile all along.

Vor year
Siggy Retburns +3
Siggy Retburns

This physics trick puzzled me years ago when I was flipping a claw hammer. No matter what I did or how I flipped it it would not just flip with the claw on the right and the hammerhead on the left. It would end up that way but half way through the flip, the claw and hammer would switch sides. From what I understood of physics at the time, I assumed it was because either the claw or the hammer weighed more than the other and gravity interrupted the momentum. But this video proves me wrong. One thing I dont understand is that if its perfectly balanced, it shouldn't happen. I still think that Earths rotation has something to do with it.

Vor year
Elgoog +21
Elgoog

@Siggy Retburns Yes that is correct, if it were perfectly balanced, it would not happen. But there is no such thing as "perfect" in practice.

Vor year
Shawn +880
Shawn

I always assumed this happened because I was adding spin without realizing it. The theory of a rotating object trying to minimize its kinetic energy actually makes a lot of sense.

Vor year
Luke Ernst +56
Luke Ernst

I mean, you are adding spin without realizing it. In the point mass simulation even the intermediate axis is stable until there was a tiny deviation from exactly straight spinning. Whether it’s you unknowingly rotating it along an axis slightly different than the true intermediate axis, or air later misaligning it, it’s almost impossible to not see this effect in practice

Vor year
ayoosh iyer +6
ayoosh iyer

@Luke Ernst if air is causing this misalignment why do we still see this effect in space ?

Vor year
Vishal Singh +7
Vishal Singh

@ayoosh iyer If the intermediate axis is pulled into a spin by the larger axis then this intermediate spin can only end once the larger axis has spun itself 180 degrees. By this deduction alone the outer intermediate masses must be switched hence the flip.

Vor year
AA Hellencita +12
AA Hellencita

@ayoosh iyer cause there is air on that cabin, remember that they are still breathing... i think if they left it in space without air we cant see this phenomenon.

Vor year
RareBeeph +7
RareBeeph

@AA Hellencita the air has nothing to do with it. as derek (veritasium) said, in the reference frame of the initial rotation of the disk, the centrifugal force inherent to the rotation is what causes the disk to flip, with a frequency dependent on how much deviation the smaller masses are initially given from the axis of rotation. that's why the wingnut spins for so long between each flip, while most other things flip much sooner: the wingnut was given very nearly axis aligned rotation when it was spun off of its screw, so the centrifugal turning forces are very small for a rather long time.

Vor 10 Monate
Tony Fourpaws +100
Tony Fourpaws

I got in trouble at work today because I was tossing various objects and watching the flip. I tried to explain it to the boss but he wasn't having it. He fired me. Now I have more time to watch your videos!

Vor 6 Monate
HyperVectra +30
HyperVectra

You must not have explained it well. Sometimes people need to experience it themselves to truly understand the concept. If you cut his brake lines, his car should spin around the maximum angle of inertia.

Vor 4 Monate
HyperVectra +3
HyperVectra

@Nramrez Oh.. could you tell me then please?

Vor 3 Monate
Koutentogiwrghs +112
Koutentogiwrghs

A colleague pointed me to this great video! I was fascinated to find that it also contained two additional facts about the great condensed matter physicists of the past century. 1) If you claim that any physical concept is not in the Landau-Lifshitz books, most probably you have not looked for it as carefully as you should. 2) It is really tough to beat Feynman's physical intuition on anything, even if he thought about it for less than half a minute.

Vor year
Teatro Grottesco +31
Teatro Grottesco

Watching a mathematician do something physical and coordinated is almost as interesting as the great info provided.

Vor 7 Monate
Rohan +37
Rohan

I have a feeling that when Feynman replied "No" to the question, it was because he considered even this "intuitive" explanation, not that intuitive for most non-physicists/engineers.

Vor 6 Monate
Jayden Wilson
Jayden Wilson

what question?? im curious and havent read much feynman

Vor 14 Tage
yommish
yommish

@Jayden Wilson it’s in the video

Vor 11 Tage
Jayden Wilson +1
Jayden Wilson

Its own Axis disrupts its harmonious dance... Which temporarily causes imbalance, but even then... It still seeks to return to a balanced state. And it always will return to that state... No matter how dysfunctional. - Jayden Wilsons "intuitive" explanation of the intermediate axis theorem.... guess I'm smarter? @yommish

Vor 11 Tage
yommish +1
yommish

@Jayden Wilson wow, I guess you are smarter than Feynman

Vor 10 Tage
Joe Daly +889
Joe Daly

As a carpenter for over fifty years I've recognized this behavior with flipping of a hammer because I early on decided to teach myself to juggle hammers. I tried to prevent the twist-flip with absolutely no success. It became clear there was more stability in working with the flip instead of against it. This explanation is such a relief! I thought it was a personal curse. Now I realize hammers are the perfect object to demonstrate this motion because they, unlike tennis rackets, have no symmetry about any axis!

Vor 3 years
John Possum +29
John Possum

You just got defective hammers.🤣

Vor 3 years
Joe Daly +39
Joe Daly

@John Possum additional evidence: rip claw configuration in hammers produce more consistent axial twisting.

Vor 3 years
Paul McGee +5
Paul McGee

Once again ball pein better than claw hammer. 😀 😉

Vor 3 years
Al Steiner +3
Al Steiner

@Joe Daly that has been my experience flipping a straight claw for years--it never rotated about the intermediate axis. Very east to flip

Vor 3 years
JamesPP Pyacek +8
JamesPP Pyacek

Yeah. Same here. Carpenter. Hammer. Flipping.

Vor 3 years
Steven McCrickard +3
Steven McCrickard

New sub, thanks for the content. I found your video interesting, informative and entertaining. I experienced this many years ago when I was a carpenter stacking roofs. Showing off I would spin my rigging axe and catch it, it looks dangerous and quite impressive especially with the twist. In reality it is quite stable and predictable.

Vor 21 Tag
Brian Brooks +4
Brian Brooks

Quite simply one of the best, most fascinating videos I've ever seen. As a tennis player, it's always fascinated me how the racket appears stable when flipped in from a vertical starting position, yet twists in the air when flipped from a horizontal starting position. I've never found any explanation (though to be fair I've not looked), but happened across this from an answer on Quora. Watch the whole video - the implications discussed at the end are quite literally out of this world. Excellent, 10*

Vor 3 Monate
John Paul Sartorius +1
John Paul Sartorius

9:09 the acceleration and deceleration around the rotation remind me a lot of secondary balance factors in reciprocating internal combustion engines (like a car). It’s caused not by the inertia but by the angular offset or the crankshaft/rod assembly. The inertia might be thought of as more of an effect in that case…if my understanding is correct.

Vor Monat
Nikola Maric +1
Nikola Maric

I noticed this 7 years ago or more when I was into butterfly knives , actually I'm not sure if it's related , but if u try to spin the butterfly knife so that the narrow part of the knife rotates it will try to open . When you spin it length wise so that longer bit is moving it will force the knife to open after a few rotations if u manage to spin it fast enough it might do it a few times too

Vor Monat
Professional Tiresome +5
Professional Tiresome

It becomes more difficult to travel further in any one axis. Accelerating in one direction of rotation meets this criteria. The wingnut flips because the continuing rotation acts like an acceleration yet with an easy way to change axes from 0 g. The limit as a rational value goes to infinity becomes irrational in the same axis, every time. Nice video!

Vor 7 Monate
Mark P +437
Mark P

I was a dynamicist in the aerospace industry for 43 years, and THAT is the BEST plain text explanation of this behavior I have ever seen! Fantastic!

Vor 3 years
Greg Smith +4
Greg Smith

Wow! You have sold me! I'll watch it again!

Vor 3 years
Xccgh Vb no +1
Xccgh Vb no

Then you're probably the person to ask what are the odds that the plates shifting around could in fact change the Earth's moment of inertia to where it could possibly effect the crust in a dramatic way? Just curious not every day one has a chance to ask a question to an expert who's possibly even thought about the same But actually with the educational background to get through the weeds of the problem and Come up with a Realistic hypothesis even if it is just A rough mental outline

Vor 3 years
Daniel Hope +1
Daniel Hope

Was I watching this correctly to assume that if the frozen poles had enough elevated weight and then melted lowering that weights and even some of the water dissipating towards the equator, this could shift the moment of inertia ?

Vor 3 years
Xccgh Vb no
Xccgh Vb no

@Daniel Hope very good point. Time For me to go research exactly how much ice is estimated to be Frozen.Thanks for the input

Vor 3 years
Karl-Konrad Klotzkopf +4
Karl-Konrad Klotzkopf

@Daniel Hope The poles are where the least mass is, on the spinning axis. So if their mass would be distributet all over spinning system, the spin should become even more stable, because the mass around the equator would become even more significant.

Vor 3 years
Drake Withers +7
Drake Withers

This was an incredibly clear and concise overview. Brilliantly done.

Vor year
stainlesssteelfox1
stainlesssteelfox1

Thank you! This is an amazing explanation and I can finally see in my head how it works. I've never been able to follow the maths involved.

Vor 11 Monate
Fehmeed
Fehmeed

Well done, first time I have seen someone go through the trouble of showing a rotating frame of reference. How a rotating body sees the world around it and the centrifugal forces it experience.

Vor Monat
Kevin C +2
Kevin C

Noticed this effect when idly flipping a hammer as a construction worker in the latter 1970s. Always wondered what the cause was, as with some practice I could flip the hammer so that it didn’t flip. Was never sure if it flipped because I imparted a spin. When I went to college in the 1980s and got an engineering degree, I don’t recall that this theorem ever came up in physics, math, or engineering classes. Thanks for the explanation!

Vor 3 Monate
Evan Harsh +8
Evan Harsh

I had always wondered why a tennis racket could never flip straight, finally get an explanation! Thank you lol

Vor year
ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı +2416
ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı

This explaination is beautiful when you're actually learning this stuff in school... keeps me wanting to know more. Thanks Veritasium!!!

Vor 2 years
attic Slabs +16
attic Slabs

Never been a more deserving like to a comment on a video!

Vor 2 years
ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı +4
ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı

@attic Slabs :)

Vor 2 years
Mapk 46 +22
Mapk 46

I watch this as a break from stupid school work.

Vor 2 years
James Smith +1
James Smith

@ılılıᴘᴀʟᴇʙʟᴜᴇᴅᴏᴛɢᴜʏılılı %ï

Vor 2 years
Rita Maru +7
Rita Maru

@Mapk 46 Good

Vor 2 years
James R +5
James R

My physics professor described this effect using a hammer. With a little practice I discovered I could put just the right amount of torque on the hammer when I flipped it to prevent this effect.

Vor year
Gautam Vashi +5
Gautam Vashi

This guy solves my problems, that I never had. He's simply awesome. 😍 I always learn alot from his every video ❤

Vor year
Adam Plaza
Adam Plaza

I noticed it as a kid too but thought it rotated probably by the Friktion in my hand like that. Same with the remote. The other rotations seemed like “too much different as they would trigger each other” and the “flip throw” if u will: the main motion is big and does the “smaller” motion because lesser force (like hand friction) on top as u throw. That’s how I answered my questions without math 🤷‍♂️🤣But its cool to see the whole math behind this all day thing, and knowing the spin addition isn’t a hand friction thing 🤣 but could the hand friction determin if it’s rotating left or right?

Vor 3 Monate
Cosens-Prior +2
Cosens-Prior

Fascinating and the maximum moment of inertia appears to apply to your consistent delivery of this long and very clear explanation. It didn't look like you were reading off an autocue either! Anyhow my brain hurts after all that! Maybe the phenomenon should be re-named the wibbly wobbly effect ie the instability of energy transfer. Or why figure skaters don't always fall over when they're spinning.

Vor year
Julian +2
Julian

Why isn't the explanation for the intermediate (y)-axis in 8:28 not equally valid for the x-axis. A small inclination from it should give the same periodically movement in my view, the only difference is that now the mass ratio between the main rotating mass and the tilted is different... Any ideas about that? I would appreciate it :D

Vor 8 Monate
David King +373
David King

I've been flipping tennis rackets for years and never been able to get my head around this effect. Incredible.

Vor 4 years
F.X.M. +17
F.X.M.

I always figured I was just giving it some spin around the long axis unintentionally, because I didn't have enough dexterity to do otherwise. Now I know better.

Vor 4 years
Nathan Lang +2
Nathan Lang

I always assumed it had to due with imbalanced rotation compounded by air resistance. Which I guess was half right.

Vor 4 years
Tim Beaton +1
Tim Beaton

Was this a Head, tennis racquet by any chance? 😎

Vor 4 years
Thiago Dias +4
Thiago Dias

I've also been flipping tennis rackets for years, but never been able to get my head away from its path on its way down... ;(

Vor 4 years
LArry RIch +1
LArry RIch

David King I always thought it was my skill that caused the flip I didn't know it was doing it on its own 😕

Vor 4 years
John Papiewski +1
John Papiewski

This reminds me a lot of the Wilberforce Pendulum, in which a bouncing up and down motion shifts to a rotating motion and back again, the KE phasing back and forth between the 2 modes. And there's a swinging mode also I think.

Vor 7 Monate
erkin olmez +5
erkin olmez

The "bolt in space" system is a totally different system than the other ones you mention. In the first system there are only two states of equilibrium, which continue for a terrifyingly accurate time span say X secs or rotations in direction a then X sec or rotations in b. It seems that once a variable measured from a point on the bolt (say the moment/k.e./precession of right end of the screw etc.) slowly increases and reaches a certain value of n, the state of the system perfectly changes from s1 to s2. The same process repeats itself and this time system changes from s2 back to s1.The variable as well as the whole system direction oscillates perfectly in two states forever (a nice sinus wave with sharp ends). A perfect "reset" back to identical initial conditions occurs. Much has to be investigated here. The systems discussed here are very different. It is like comparing apples and oranges. The video doesn't simplify the matter. It just complicates it. How shall we define the bolt in space behavior? (a dual state periodically self-resetting system?) What types of weight distributions result in this behavior in space/under zero gravity conditions (again a constant of the bolt in space system, things don't behave like this on earth)? See Milankovitch cycles for tackling this via a better video. It took him 30 some years to find what he found. Also kindly add a simulation and the graphs of the changes in K.E./moment/precession or whatever variable just jump starts at one edge of the system let's say (ie. using motion capture-position data from sensors placed on (and in?) various points on (and in?) the bolt, do velocity/k.e./momentum calculations using this data). I am sure (that is 100% sureness), if there are asteroids or even planets, that have a center of gravity distribution mimicing that of the bolt or bolt in clay model (and that weight distribution doesn't change for a certain amount of time), they must be exhibiting the same behavior. The earth? I am not sure, but there might be a certain "configuration" (weight distribution let's say) if kept constant for enough rotations, that will push earth to behave as the bolt in space as well (enough skyscapers on one side? (joke) A huge tectonic/magma shift, then just 40 days of rotations? Or maybe miniscule but steady changes of weight distribution spanning a couple of million years? (precession at its limits) How about a video on scenarios that would make earth behave as the bolt in space?) P. S. Feynman is overrated.

Vor 6 Monate
Poot Thatbak
Poot Thatbak

Erkin..i like your post. However, I really doubt mankind could shift enough material on earths surface to change our axis. We are still tiny ants compared to earths mass.

Vor 6 Monate
Cheeky Jazzhop
Cheeky Jazzhop

great point

Vor 4 Monate
Richard Mansur
Richard Mansur

@Veritasium. This was very enlightening. As an Electrical Engineer, I spend my time understanding the intangible. I’d really love to have a discussion about this topic and the history of Earth and global warming solely focused on the potentials of this science.

Vor year
Ed Stent +1
Ed Stent

As I was watching this video I realized these were the forces that cause a tire to need to be dynamically balanced because it's masses are out along its rotational axis.

Vor year
chris fitzsimmons +1
chris fitzsimmons

ive known about this effect since i was a kid. I didn't know what it was called, but I would do this with my tv remote. it fascinated me how it was doing a half twist in the air. i started tossing the remote higher so it would spend more time in the air to get the full twist or even 1.5

Vor year
Alexander Saavedra +729
Alexander Saavedra

There is also a skateboard trick called the impossible flip because of this. They counter it by leading the front foot trough the flip to keep it from flipping on the other axis.

Vor 4 years
Commie +17
Commie

yeah thats exactly what i was thinking and i was like-wait are they defying this theory?

Vor 4 years
Tooba +20
Tooba

I saw the physics girl video about that.. but I understood that here..

Vor 4 years
FerousFolly +11
FerousFolly

this effect is also what makes the 360 flip (tre flip) work the way it does.

Vor 4 years
Jon Bowman +9
Jon Bowman

yes! this took forever to learn. btw using the front foot to balance the board is a "front foot impossible." An impossible uses the back foot.

Vor 4 years
Eli Pratt +1
Eli Pratt

So, if I'm understanding this correctly, if we could somehow align the tennis racket so that the head and handle are perfectly level and parallel to the ground, could we stop the half turn? Because the two smaller masses on either side of the axis of rotation would not experience any centrifugal force from the rotation and thus wouldn't flip to generate the half turn?

Vor year
Dave Strider
Dave Strider

I’m trying to replicate this with the iPad I’m watching on and I can’t figure out why the centrifugal forces act in the z direction (they seem like they should be limited to the x). But physics is physics and I can feel myself adding the unstable twist in. It’s a wonky feeling like my hands are being forced in a certain way.

Vor 4 Monate
Harry Mattah
Harry Mattah

Reminds me of the inertial roll coupling experienced by some aircrafts (F100, F102). This was theorized by Philips in 1948, and experienced some years later..

Vor 8 Monate
Steven Sims
Steven Sims

I would say, prior to watching the video that this is something that occurs to objects with offset centers of axis. A wingnut is a perfect example. Simply put, the object might have a tendency to try and spin in relation to the fact it is not a symmetrically centered object.

Vor 3 Monate
Tapis T
Tapis T

I've noticed that spinning racket phenomenon when I was little, but I convinced myself that it was due to air friction and didn't think further.

Vor year
Jaynegg +281
Jaynegg

This experiment is represented in a humorous way in Kerbal Space Program. When in mid air or a vacuum, while EVA, you can perform an experiment where the Kerbal tries to spin a wingnut, but he spins instead. It's not exactly the same thing, but it's really cool to finally learn from where they drew the inspiration for that animation.

Vor 2 years
Philip Hockenbury +7
Philip Hockenbury

Another KSP fan.

Vor 2 years
Dimanyak +14
Dimanyak

"The strangest thing is not that it happens, but that spacecraft works without this part"

Vor 2 years
CDN theonepath-io +1
CDN theonepath-io

lol that's awesome

Vor 2 years
max corrice
max corrice

Did that change? When I played it did this, maybe it’s based on specialty

Vor year
Fredrik
Fredrik

Thanks this is super interesting. It brings to mind the recent discoveries of the massive blobs of higher density that's been found inside the earth. Its thought that these have higher density than other parts and if you look at some 3d maps you'll see that they support these rotation theories as the blobs are centered along earths 'mid riff' so could possibly be the factor deciding earths orientation.

Vor 8 Monate
LawDog
LawDog

Like the stability-bar on top of the top rotor of an RC helicopter.

Vor 8 Monate
Wessel Joubert
Wessel Joubert

Is it possible to spin a sphere on all 3 axis at the same time with the same amount of rotation? if so, what would be the path of a single point on the surface of the sphere through space?

Vor 10 Monate
Andrew D Mackay
Andrew D Mackay

What about this? Some weeks ago I discovered if you suspend a sphere - or apple - on a string - it will start wobbling and then begin to spin quite fast for as long as it can before the suspension string twists up on itself and causes an opposite torque. I need to find a frictionless coupling which would prevent the string from twisting up and see if the sphere continues to rotate indefinitely. Perpetual motion?!

Vor year
Brian Bordenkircher +4
Brian Bordenkircher

Woah. Yep. I’m wondering what would happen if the earth flipped. Or heck, the sun. Lol :-o Still, even if it isn’t supposed to flip, aren’t the magnetic poles still slowly moving though? Will that affect us? Curious if you could make a video on that. I’d watch that too. Love your videos!

Vor year
Stan Weaver
Stan Weaver

That was interesting and really intuitively explained. Thanks!

Vor year
Andrew Chapman +2102
Andrew Chapman

Video: contains the phrase "prove Feynman wrong" Also video: doesn't use this phrase as clickbait. I salute you.

Vor 4 years
Shadow Coder +31
Shadow Coder

One could still argue that it is clickbait. Because an intuitive explanation is relative to the person receiving the explanation. And Feynman probably knew his students wouldn't be able to understand this explanation. Hence it being hard for him to intuitively explain it to his students.

Vor 4 years
Bryant +40
Bryant

Living Legend I concur. Derek in this case used 3d animation to explain this phenomenon while Feynman would’ve been limited to making some drawings and mental pictures. The explanation subjectively intuitive but intuitive nonetheless, at least more so than math equations.

Vor 4 years
TheLaXandro +14
TheLaXandro

He could make a "3d model" out of a plate and a pencil to mark the axis out, and demonstrate it in a largely similar way.

Vor 4 years
Volker Siegel +1
Volker Siegel

"prove Feynman wrong" is not working clickbait - it's so obviously spam that nobody would click it. And then... he actually did what?

Vor 4 years
mvmlego1212 +15
mvmlego1212

Of course, it's not "bait" if he actually does it (which, in my opinion, he did). I still appreciate that he gave it an informative and non-confrontational title, though.

Vor 4 years
Zanthum
Zanthum

I love the explanation at the end that the earth won't flip because of the molten (fluid) mantle; question: what about the solid body inside that fluid body ie, the core. Could that solid core within the larger fluid filled body not flip independently of the outer layers?

Vor 8 Monate
F M
F M

If SpaceX made a large Mars transport vehicle that looked like a long cylinder with a rotating ring at one end of the vehicle and rocket engines at the other end, would the craft experience The Dzhanibekov Effect while flying to Mars? If yes, would a second ring spinning the opposite way that was nearby to the first ring cancel out the effect?

Vor 7 Monate
Special EDy +1
Special EDy

I've always done this with a hammer, or large crescent wrenches, and wondered why it would flip around the handle axis.

Vor 8 Monate
Dan Daniels
Dan Daniels

I remember when I was 10yrs old I discovered this effect with my own experiments and observations. Conducting fail-safe test that proved to myself that it didn't occur by the influence of my own actions. Fascinated by my unexplained discovery the thought of how the earth's rotation was effecting it I assumed it would flip in the opposite direction depending on which hemisphere you did it in? I still haven't conducted this experiment and was wondering if anyone has? Thanks. Dan from the land down under 🇦🇺

Vor 7 Monate
Sarah Loughhead
Sarah Loughhead

Could the molten iron core be considered as a smaller spinning sphere with its own relative moments of inertia that then may flip?

Vor 4 Monate
KozmykJ +401
KozmykJ

I first observed this phonomenon 54 years ago when I was juggling books, as one does, especially at age 10. I asked again and again over the years what caused it. My parents, teachers, anyone who'd listen, No one ever had a answer. Most had never noticed it happening at all. I'm sure knife throwers must have figured how to predict it even if they didn't know the cause . Well. thanks to Veritasium, if finally got my answer last year, in 2019. 🖖

Vor 3 years
Kurt Reber +16
Kurt Reber

I too flipped books and now that you mention it, I HAVE noticed this turn during flip. I just assumed I wasn't balancing the book very well to start.

Vor 3 years
wondering albatros +3
wondering albatros

@Kurt Reber Ditto. I'm high IQ, ADD as f$%k and embarrassed to admit I didn't question a single thing.

Vor 3 years
Christopher Conner +2
Christopher Conner

I saw it happen as a child, saw that there was no " explanation " shrugged my shoulders and continued to twist flip things to see it's center of gravity so I could educate my self without books and others telling me their point of view. Lol

Vor 3 years
KozmykJ +1
KozmykJ

@wondering albatros I'm only 95th percentile ... a bit thick really 😜

Vor 3 years
Glen Apfelstadt +6
Glen Apfelstadt

Ya know, some read books and others realize physical phenomena as the books fly through the air.

Vor 3 years
Dossip
Dossip

So going back to Tao’s explanation, what happens if Y axis is not tilted, what if we are able to flip it from a perfect level position?

Vor year
Epic Tales +2
Epic Tales

I had seen a video on this subject awhile back and today I heard something about it and it turned on the lightbulb. I searched for a video of this happening and wrote in the comments: "I know why they do this, and it is a lot more simple than it looks!! To figure it out, all you have to do it watch the ending half of this when the handle spins slowly enough that you can play in slow motion and see the moment of change. It is a balance issue from material being removed to add in a set screw location for the handle. That small imbalance is enough to cause the flip every few rotations due to build up of imbalance. The handle part of the T handle doesn't play a role in inducing the "dancing" effect." Then realized it wasn't even a science channel and wanted to put this somewhere that others would read it instead of readers just being awe struck with the video alone and ignoring the how and what is going on.

Vor year
Carlos Reche +3
Carlos Reche

Hi, Derek! Thanks for bringing this subject to light. Let me get this straight. There are infinite axis by which you can spin an object, right? When you mention the object's "three principal axis", I think there are only two that you can clearly point it out: the ones with the greatest and the smallest moments of inertia. All other axis of rotation (infinite possibilities) would result to be in an intermediate moment of inertia. Is that right? So, here is a first conclusion: the stability of a rotating body is as higher as it is close to one of those two main axis (with greatest or smallest moments of inertia). Any rotation in an axis that has the slightest difference from these two would result to be an unstable one, and the body would flip after some time doing more or less spinnings (depending on how close it is to one of those stable axis). Am I correct to think of it this way? And, if so, here is another thought: when spinning the tennis racket by hand, we problably cannot reach the precision to do it exactly in one of those two main axis. And maybe it would flip if we gave it enough time to make a lot of spinnings. Which brings me to this: thinking the Earth as a body in constant changes (we have a lot of heat and pressure underneath our feet, evidenced by volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, not to mention external factors that might ruin any stable movement), what are the odds that our planet is really rotating in a stable axis? It makes me wonder, since there are a lot of cultures that talk about cataclysmic events that occur from time to time. And we have a bunch of evidences of it. But let's leave this conversation for another time. For now, for those who is interested (and also the skepticals), just reasearch about a book called "The Adam and Eve Story" and ask yourselves why it has been classified by the CIA in the 1960's, and has not been fully declassified by the Freedom of Information Act. I don't mean to be conspiratorial, but to me it's clear that this knowledge has been around for some time (like "always"), and is held by only a group of people.

Vor 7 Monate
Cass T +3
Cass T

Thank you! Felt like the video was very good until that last part where he breezily swept any alternative theories aside… more explanation needed on how the earth has a stable axis when magma, plates, and magnetic fields/ poles are in a constant state of flux!

Vor 4 Monate
William Allen +1
William Allen

What about plate tectonics? As the crust is dragged under, and redistributed is there a chance that the maximum moment of inertia of the could be changed by this redistribution?

Vor year
Yigit Ozan
Yigit Ozan

I've been observing this with TV remotes that I was spinning like the tennis racket for years and always wondered why

Vor 4 Monate
Kenneth McComb +823
Kenneth McComb

I noticed this years ago flipping a hammer in the air. Each time the head points a different direction. It's cool to have it explained.

Vor 2 years
Michael M. +3
Michael M.

Me too !!!

Vor 2 years
SW6 +28
SW6

And me, used to think it was the way I flipped it.

Vor 2 years
GrimResolve +15
GrimResolve

Same, but with a pair of scissors (not recommended).

Vor 2 years
William R Buchanan +2
William R Buchanan

Think it’s about a wing nut in space,nil gravity.. That wing nut spin in space,comes off the thread spinning with its extra inertia.nothing to stop its spin or guide or draw it off its line of original traverse. Not restrained by the thread it has an inbuilt signal of its initial power supply. Having in air on Earth in first use, now it has a atmosphere of the space station. Resistance to the onboard air. Pressure. It gets a build up of resistance and reverses to balance of air resistance. But can’t overcome the power of the thread spinning to remove. Which was excess to requirement for its removal. It is weightless and obey its kinetic energy until it is used by some means of being attracted. It then turned to what ever mass was attracting it as it slowed. The equipment within the space station. Mass attracts weaker mass, if it has freedom to follow the attraction. Snooker ball hit too hard will bounce back and forward in the pocket jaws on Earth and not go into the pocket the rebound resistance has changed its path of drop . It has to lose it kinetic energy at its intended terminal, the pocket.

Vor 2 years
Vary +3
Vary

i used to flip things in my hand too, but not a hammer.

Vor year
Dana Craig
Dana Craig

How about ice ages? As mass is shifted from equatorial to polar ( max moment to min) I can see instability increase if the mass that has moved piles up on a preferred pole creating a miss match. This would of course have to happen fast enough so the mantle can't deform under the weight and compensate. Is this possible?

Vor 3 Monate
Jay G.A
Jay G.A

I remember years ago, there was a commercial for I believe it was, the Red Cross and being prepared for any emergency. It had a disaster, where the whole earth turned upsidedown and the family walked out of the house and we're then standing on the roof that was now the floor. It had me seriously thinking they were warning us to prepare for something.

Vor year
Steben Elle
Steben Elle

Even as an experienced mechanical engineer, I am amazed at what I don't know. Thanks for this,

Vor year
Robert Stone
Robert Stone

Really nice Mechanics 'lecture'! Would Earth's rotation be affected somewhat by continents shifting as a result of plate tectonics?

Vor year
That Old Bob
That Old Bob

I was not aware of this though I have the same ring on my little finger as you have. Regarding the “centrifugal force indicated by arrows” may miss lead some. I always refer to tangent directional arrows as the “ manifestation” of the centrifugal force, as we all know that there are no centrifugal force, only the force which is retaining object in a circular path. I love your shows, very educational though I loose you in math pretty soon. I am very old but this is no excuse. Keep it up, something among the few it worse while to watch.

Vor year
Paulo Manuel Sendim Aires Pereira +165
Paulo Manuel Sendim Aires Pereira

Mechanical Engineers found out many years ago that the best approach for dealing with real problems intuitively is to consider inertial forces. Otherwise, you get lost in a massive amount of equations.

Vor year
Rohit Chachlani
Rohit Chachlani

enter flywheel effect

Vor year
Greg Bellinger
Greg Bellinger

It's pretty amazing how much smarter some people are compared to the rest of us Cro-Magnon people. The great visuals, voice tone, and word choice made the video very good. Thanks.

Vor year
Forgie Dusker
Forgie Dusker

I think i commented about this one a long while ago, i first noticed the phenomenon while flipping a TV remote just like the tennis racket. Great to get some closure :)

Vor year
steve canali
steve canali

I noticed the wing nut and T handle, which are both in continuous rotation, flip every 5 revs, but also change from clock wise to counter clockwise. If this were going to apply to the earth, wouldn’t it flip every 5 days, making the sun rise in the West? What would happen to tides?

Vor 9 Monate
Carole SM
Carole SM

Really professionally put together video. Excellent.

Vor year
Daniel Ingram
Daniel Ingram

Question. When the wing nut is spinning and changing rotation, I’m wondering if a body of water surrounding it would affect the spinning , how would it affect it?

Vor 17 Tage
EconomiVision +403
EconomiVision

I've never been so educated, filled with a learned horror and then so suddenly and gratefully relieved in a single video. You deserve an award for creating the most educational drama in human history.

Vor 4 years
Patrick McLeod +3
Patrick McLeod

Well, at least we now know that the Earth has 3 potential axis spin directions........... you know, because it's flat....... Darn, why couldn't God have made the Earth round!!?? Lol 😂

Vor 4 years
Andy Clark +1
Andy Clark

Wont it have infinite axe's of rotation due to it being a ball??? (Not taking the piss or being sarcastic or trying to sound clever)

Vor 4 years
Smash To Bits +1
Smash To Bits

@Andy Clark it is sphere-ish. But it is heavier in areas like the gravity image of Mars he showed

Vor 4 years
decidiousrex
decidiousrex

Watch his other videos. He has some seriously cool plot twists involving nothing but science

Vor 4 years
Bob Rolander
Bob Rolander

Isn't this just a special case of the butterfly effect?

Vor 4 years
Julien Cooper
Julien Cooper

Do you see the optical illusion happening in some of your animated graphics? At about 727 into the video, the disk on y axis suddenly flipped. Instantly. Even as the arrows appeared and lengthened. Then I was able to back to that to try to see it both ways with concentration, not even sure which way it is supposed to be going. I let the video go on and saw that in later parts, where they transitioned but still with them going and transitioning this way or that way. When I first saw this at 727, I thought that was without it transitioning to another rotation or axis with that detail about to be added and explained. But this is the diagrams seen either way. Check it, let me know what you think.

Vor 6 Monate
Jon Doe
Jon Doe

Also, what was covered were solids and liquids, but what about gases under different amounts of pressure and heat? Different (singular) gases with different amu seems like it would also behave differently, right? Better yet, if this is true about all things (hypothetically) would it be true about electrons or electrically charged particles?

Vor year
Horizon +1
Horizon

So I am confused about one thing. At 8:24 it suggests that this rotational flip only occurs when it is bumped or not perfectly flat across the plane. So is it that if we flipped it with the shape whilst being perfectly flat, it will flip over its axis normally without the shape doing the rotational ship? (Note I might being using rotational flip wrong, but I think you get what I am trying to say.)

Vor year
c alex
c alex

Makes you wonder if this explains wave/particle duality with light as it relates to Venn’s paradox with the polarized lenses bc it then would explain the missing photons maybe. Also the Adam and Eve story from Chan Thomas saying that the earth has made 90degree shifts (like Hudson Bay being the North Pole for awhile before current orientation). If this is the case then the inner core slowing down may be ominous.

Vor 8 Monate
Gary Riley
Gary Riley

Nice video! You should consider doing a video dedicated to why we have or think we have magnetic pole shifts on the earth

Vor year
Kody Cook +417
Kody Cook

I'm a carpenter and I'm constantly flipping my hammer while I'm not busy. I've wondered for the past 10 years (I became a carpenter in 2010) why is it the head and claws of my hammer flip flop when I flip my hammer head over handle. I thank you for this video!! I suffer from ADD/ADHD and I find myself pondering this very often (driving myself nuts over it). Thanks again for the answers!!!!

Vor 4 years
alberto Serrano +14
alberto Serrano

anxious minds made modern world possible

Vor 4 years
Mellow Guy +4
Mellow Guy

First thing that occurred to me too. Been a carpenter for many years. Hammers will do that every time you flip them.

Vor 4 years
Pseudo Gamer +2
Pseudo Gamer

Yeah.....I understand ur struggle for all this year's I mean u could have done nothing about it..... If someone from MIT got this idea he would have derived it in few days because of their technology and advancements in maths n physics ..... I've gone through the same thing many times .....it takes time to solve problems .....unless i meet some expert on that topic and gain complete idea .....then i can solve it xd

Vor 4 years
Carlos Byrd +2
Carlos Byrd

Alexandre BrunetI hope so

Vor 4 years
SquareRootOf2
SquareRootOf2

Compliment Thief Stop thieving.

Vor 4 years
Vampire Nighthawk +1
Vampire Nighthawk

Interesting. I work in kitchens as a chef, and one of the fun games we play is to try and spin tongs without the 1st axial twist occurring. As far as I understand, kitchen tongs have the same three axes as a tennis racket. And yet I have been able to spin them only on the 2nd axis. In fact, pretty much everyone who has played this game in the kitchen with me has been able to achieve a clean toss after just a few tries. What could be going on for me to be able to do this?

Vor year
Mike J
Mike J

How about adding thermal energy into the experiment. Try lobbing a saucepan of smoking oil into the air - and then add the kinetic energy of running away - quickly!

Vor year
romano manaresi +12
romano manaresi

Awesome video, really instructive. However, I think there’s a small mistake when it shows the images of the earth twisting (at time 10:09 - 10:18). I have a problem that I’d like to bring to your attention: the absolute direction of the earth rotation changes, whereas it should remain the same (to conserve angular momentum), only the poles should be inverted. What I mean is that, should such an event happen to the earth, we should see the sun rising in the west, whereas the images of the earth after the twist show the sun still rising in the east.

Vor year
rrs +5
rrs

@qqqqq537 Sun has always rose from the East, ever since the quran was written. Did you mean "sun rising from the west"?

Vor year
Best Name +4
Best Name

@qqqqq537 🤦‍♂️

Vor year
fridaycat
fridaycat

To be fair, it would be much easier to have a simple 180 degree rotation of an image of the earth, rather than a rotation of a fully lit model of the earth with realtime sunlight. Easier for video production, but not as accurate to reality. Still would be cool to see a fully rendered simulation though

Vor 10 Monate
Shubhranshu
Shubhranshu

Totally fascinating. I believe the Oumuamua was also flipping over longitudinally.

Vor year
Giardi Asis
Giardi Asis

The smaller pair of cubes, if you were to trace their outlines, appear to create a pair of identical, yet mirrored, Morlet wavelets.

Vor year
kilroy987
kilroy987

I wasn't aware that objects in space always choose a main axis to spin on. I wasn't sure if you could impart a spin on any object on any arbitrary axis. I guess not, apparently.

Vor 4 Monate
Johnny Roman +185
Johnny Roman

This phenomenon fascinated me as a 10 year old since I’ve been obsessed with skateboarding, (specifically flip tricks); and although I could not explain it, it was what first got me interested in physics.

Vor 2 years
Bradley Ries +7
Bradley Ries

Interesting point! Kickflips and shuv-its are common tricks, yet the impossible is well....harder to do!

Vor year
R C +2
R C

it expains why my 360 flips always ended up upside down :-D

Vor year
Megashock13
Megashock13

@Bradley Ries the impossible is my favorite trick and i think tony hawk did a video about this physics property

Vor year
Soroush Torkian +1
Soroush Torkian

I’m kind of surprised there aren’t more pro skaters who like physics, it makes logical sense haha

Vor year
Steve C
Steve C

I've been doing this with ball peen hammers for 30 years. When you flip the handle around the side profile of the head (like the tennis racket) it changes direction.

Vor year
Xenkuru
Xenkuru

When I saw it I thought: It would be incredibly difficult to spin something perfectly on one axis

Vor year
Victor Camara
Victor Camara

This video actually helped my tremendously in my physics class on angular momentum and torque lol

Vor year
Man with No name
Man with No name

As a skateboarder who flips things daily, this is very interesting!

Vor year
Paul Halicki
Paul Halicki

When I took physics in the 1980s this one of the demonstrations. The lecturer did it with a book. Rotate it about an axis parallel to the cover or to the shortest edge of the book and it rotates in a sable fashion. Rotate it about the other axis and it flips around in multiple axes. (In your video as soon as you said it was a new phenomenon I thought BS right away.) EDIT: And there it is at 11:10 although I'm disappointed you didn't show the other axis.

Vor year
Andrew Merrick +204
Andrew Merrick

I absolutely loved this video. You are filling the void in my heart that Vsauce left behind.

Vor 4 years
anotherturd +13
anotherturd

he went to youtube red. I stopped watching after that.

Vor 4 years
Sam Harper +8
Sam Harper

And Derek knows the difference between lay and lie anyway. VSauce did not and this is not acceptable.

Vor 4 years
Shubham Kanauji +2
Shubham Kanauji

Whyy ? Vsauce is not making videos anymore ?

Vor 4 years
Mathew Perkins +5
Mathew Perkins

@Shubham Kanauji well its a youtube red channel now but he does upload to the ding (formerly dong) channel vsauce 2 and 3 upload as normal.

Vor 4 years
Joe Sterling +11
Joe Sterling

@Mathew Perkins And that's when I'll watch him. As far as many of us are concerned, information behind paywalls doesn't exist. If it's important enough or interesting enough, someone will put it out there for free.

Vor 4 years
Ricardo Strambi
Ricardo Strambi

Excellent video! I would just add another schematic video of the disk, bit with four equal masses, with an explanation on why ot wouldn't flip.

Vor year
Andrew Werner +1
Andrew Werner

This is very close to what I want to know. With uneven masses still, while rotating about the first axis, the large masses are t moving. But if it is jostled ever so slightly off axis, the large masses should experience some centrifugal force causing them to move further away from the axis. I understand in a rigid body, they can't dissipate the kinetic energy, but that doesn't explain how they avoid the centrifugal force pulling them outward. For equal mass objects. The same question arises, but I think it doesn't matter so much whether it flips or not because I think flipping is akin to Derek's flying disk just rotating, so you wouldn't even be able to tell unless you mark the disk and watch where the mark ends up. It wouldn't change the moment of inertia at all. However, he also says that the heavier masses (having much more inertia) basically force the smaller masses to stay in the same plane as they flip. But that wouldn't necessarily happen if all the masses were equal.

Vor 11 Monate
bsrcat1
bsrcat1

I used to do this with knives when I was a chef back in 1995. My favorite was the 4 lb meat cleaver. Of course I would do this behind my back and catch it with the other hand but I noticed it right off mainly because you concentrate really hard when you're tossing a blade. I would flip a wide tooth pocket comb and it would do the same thing. Leave it to the Soviets think that they figured out something revolutionary 🤣.

Vor year
Jack Harrington
Jack Harrington

Wow, I've always noticed this and while I wasn't confused with how it happens or why or anything, it just confused me whenever I tossed something in the air and caught it the other way.

Vor year
Carnifex
Carnifex

Interesting. I guess that's why in skateboarding we call similar trick "Impossible". But of course it's possible cuz with the help of your feet you wrap around the skateboard so you prevent it from flipping.

Vor 8 Monate
Abel Cavaşi
Abel Cavaşi

Excellent and well documented your videos! But, I have a small objection, however, regarding this video: it does not explain the sudden JUMPS that make the transition from a stable to an unstable movement.

Vor year
johnknoefler +64
johnknoefler

As a kid I loved to flip objects and spin them. It drove me nuts when some times didn't cooperate. I always thought it was kind of me doing it wrong and only realized that some objects are harder to get a good spin out of. Now I know why.

Vor 4 years
e0031959
e0031959

Could this happen to a tidally locked planet though? (If extreme heat/cold at 2 points on the equator causes them to have much lower altitude than elsewhere on the planet?)

Vor year
eposz2
eposz2

There is an error in the Earth pole flipping animation. The direction of rotation (that is the angular momentum) should not change. Otherwise sensational video!

Vor year
kaleb Gonzales
kaleb Gonzales

I was dancing to 80s music a while ago and I have done a few spin moves and then I thought of something philosophically unconventional but, I thought that Rotational Motion was sacred and I was a bit surprised to even think about it. Then I started to think about car engines for some reason after. Now I’m watching this haha.

Vor year
Fox Salinas
Fox Salinas

I use this property of rotation in fire dance and never once thought about why it works. So cool!

Vor year
Pranav P
Pranav P

So, can I assume that Earth in its really really early days was spinning about its intermediate axis, and then switched to the axis with maximum moment of inertia?

Vor year
Dale Sparrow +37
Dale Sparrow

I had advanced dynamics for my masters, and this was the best explanation I have ever heard.

Vor 4 years
Presley Richard +2
Presley Richard

this is fascinating. I can't help but imagine there was a corridor in a space war and a single exit in the middle with enemies approaching from both sides you could set you laser rifle to full auto and spin it. It would shoot both ways and cover your escape

Vor 3 Monate
birnenaugust birnenaugust +1
birnenaugust birnenaugust

It might be an attempt to explain the two sides of the same coin and how they cross and turn at a single point. Let's start with this zero point, starting point, origin, singularity, aniilization of opposites... the rabbit hole... In space, after a few turns, a screw tends to rotate 180°. Every time you throw a tennis racquet in the air, after one rotation around one axis, it also makes a half rotation around another axis, so you always see the other side of the racquet. If you imagine a coin that is positive on one side and negative on the opposite side, you need to be aware that on the other side you have a mirror image of that side in front of you. So what is positive on the side facing you is negative on the other side. Positive attracts negative and repels positive. Now it happens that positive turns negative in cycles, but does it really turn negative? No... it just rotates the other side towards the viewer's view. So it's just an illusion of polarity reversal, but in reality it's just moving backwards to be seen from the other side. That's how magnetism works. The point of strongest attraction is just inside the magnet at the center of the mass. What does that have to do with religion? Religions are unaware of this scientific fact and demonize science. Good and Evil rotate in cycles because they are an "object" and attract their reflection, causing this rotation in that zero point, which happens to be the ideal symmetry. You can't see it all at once, but we're perfectly capable of understanding it... the observer effect. The equinoxes are the zero point of time when day equals night. Then we can observe the greatest mystery of our reality. It is the time of perfect symmetry (achiral). Summer or winter solstices are the times of highest asymmetry (chiral). Right in the middle of the swastika, where the North Pole is, happens the turning point. This is the illusion of time, but not the reason for our existence. The cause of our existence is the recovery of the Cross, which is perfect symmetry...no opposites. All equal, monopoly, neutral, balance... and the cross meets right in the middle of two sticks with a north pole in the middle. An interesting fact is also the expansion of the universe. It could be due to earth movements. The north pole shift describes an ever-expanding spiral. A fixed north would always show a single point that never grows and never expands.

Vor 8 Monate
CoyoteFeral
CoyoteFeral

Man, these animations are always top notch.

Vor year

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