Spinning Black Holes

  • Am Vor 3 years

    VeritasiumVeritasium

    A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span?

    Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham.

    A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted
    by a massive black hole
    ve42.co/pasham

    Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
    Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd

    Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex

    Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA

Bri Mills
Bri Mills

I'm doing my PhD on black holes & I just finished doing an analysis of the black hole spin in GRS 1915+105 (it was actually the first BH in the table of spins you showed). I was super impressed by how accurate everything in your video was! I study all of this for a living right now lol. I also loved the animations - I always have trouble finding a good accretion disk animation which shows how the ISCO shrinks as the black hole spin increases. A fantastic & informative video.

Vor year
xzzaaqa
xzzaaqa

@Embir F yeah man I’ll just stop doing physics and take some time to teach you everything you want to know ….. Let’s discuss physics mate . Hahahahahaha dude that’s so funny

Vor 10 Tage
Embir F
Embir F

Oh you and I should discuss physics. I would love to learn more

Vor 10 Tage
xzzaaqa
xzzaaqa

That is soooo rad man. Wish I was smart . Find something cool !

Vor 17 Tage
Binoy Vudi
Binoy Vudi

Are you single?

Vor 17 Tage
Bri Mills
Bri Mills

If you’re reading this, I’ve got a question - I’ve been thinking of making a podcast but I’m not sure what people would be interested in - like a black holes podcast where I can talk about what exciting research people do on black holes, or a podcast about students who make their way into working on this kind of stuff, or talking about my journey in particular and how being half Chinese/half white living with a crazy traumatic family life has felt like living near a black hole lol. Or something else? Anyone have any suggestions or wanna do some collaboration?

Vor 20 Tage
Scott Manley
Scott Manley

Perhaps I'm misunderstanding but isn't ISCO the wrong thing to focus on here regarding on the limit of the rotation, the ISCO is for matter orbiting the black hole. Photons departing radially outwards can escape for any point exterior to the event horizon regardless of the rotation. For a black hole with a rotational parameter of more than 0.28 photons can orbit prograde in the plane of rotation right down to the event horizon. Isn't the problem with rotation parameter > 1 the fact that the kerr metric would create a ring shaped singularity that had a radius larger than the Event horizon, and therefor expose a 'naked singularity'

Vor Monat
Pavel
Pavel

Anything involving tight orbits around the event horizon of a rotating black hole is of paramount nature! Fly safe, Scott! ;)

Vor 11 Tage
J M
J M

Does Scott make a habit of commenting on older videos? I’ll have to keep my eyes open for his comments.

Vor 17 Tage
tigerpjm
tigerpjm

We got cross channel beef going here!

Vor 22 Tage
An On
An On

So this vid is popping into everyone’s recommended now lol

Vor 23 Tage
Nethaniel Shade
Nethaniel Shade

Hey Scott, fancy seeing you here. I was wondering the same exact thing. the ISCO is for solid matter, we should be looking at the photon sohere, or the IBCO.

Vor 26 Tage
David Terr
David Terr

It's pretty amazing to me that just 50 years ago, many scientists doubted that black holes existed, whereas now, not only have they been experimentally verified, but we're learning about many of their properties as well as their origins.

Vor 10 Monate
Bajoan
Bajoan

And have taken 2 photos of them!

Vor Monat
birdie 💙💎
birdie 💙💎

@Glitched Blox WHAT

Vor Monat
birdie 💙💎
birdie 💙💎

@Glitched Blox how is that sarcastic

Vor Monat
Glitched Blox
Glitched Blox

@birdie 💙💎 The Earth is round /s

Vor Monat
Sven Medyona
Sven Medyona

When I was 17, I listed all my dream jobs (there were 18 of them). Being a physicist was at the top of that list, teaching number two. Despite living that latter profession, I still enjoy videos like this. Thanks Veritasium for keeping my interest alive. I may not understand it all, but I love it regardless.

Vor 5 Monate
Mute Minecraft
Mute Minecraft

You have 69 likes. Thats all I am gonna say

Vor 22 Tage
Joschka Zimdars
Joschka Zimdars

I found black holes always scary, but finding out they spin at insane speed makes them so much awesomely horrifyingly more scary for me.

Vor year
SoulReaper
SoulReaper

LOL

Vor 2 Monate
esra'a Haymoor
esra'a Haymoor

Same 😫

Vor 2 Monate
Mark1Mach2
Mark1Mach2

Vertasium, I can't thank you enough for these wonderful science videos. For engineers and science loving people like myself, it's very hard to find good quality content as freely available as you make them and on top of it you make them easy to understand, fun and damn interesting. Thank you so much and I hope you continue to make such wonderful videos.

Vor 19 Tage
Joe Momma
Joe Momma

“Black holes are some of the simplest objects in the universe” I really really hate editing comments but it seems a good amount of you don't realize I was quoting him in the literal same video and have tried disagreeing

Vor year
fbi agent miyako hoshino
fbi agent miyako hoshino

@Black Lyfe they technically are not spheres cause theyre spinning so fast and so they bulge outward no longer looking like a sphere. and non spinning black holes dont exist because of the law of conservation

Vor Monat
Janoy Cresva
Janoy Cresva

I legit read this as soon as he said it 😐

Vor 6 Monate
Emperor Sascharoni
Emperor Sascharoni

They are simple in the sense that with the small bit we know about them there are very little parameters. Like not knowing a child what can you do? Guess age, gender and race nothing else will be easy to guess just by looking at them and with black holes thats the only thing we can do.

Vor 9 Monate
Black Lyfe
Black Lyfe

@Zack 120 its a sphere just like the sun,planets and other celestial bodies

Vor 9 Monate
Becca
Becca

Your channel is one of the biggest reasons I’ve decided to finally go back to school, and for certain. No more maybe in a year or maybe next years, I’m going this fall for certain :) . I’m planning on getting a bio-engineering degree, but if I can have it my way instead of time’s way, I hope to get many different scientific degrees, as theres no single subject I can just dedicate my only KNOWABLE life to. Thank you for all the videos you’ve released, and for reminding me of why I fell in love with science as a kid. It’s like I found my passion after all these years, after school and general life circumstances seemed to just be determined to beat it out of me 😭 I will come back to this channel one day!! When things are different, but for the better.

Vor 6 Monate
TheDirtyRodriguez
TheDirtyRodriguez

Thank you so much for this content and all the other stuff your channels brought to me/us! With all the chaos in the world and our small little habitats these small lessons soothe me down and bring back a smile on my face. Only my kids and music have a similar effect on me.

Vor 10 Monate
Andriy T
Andriy T

Thank You for a great video, big fan of this channel. I do have a question though and I apologize for potential ridiculousness of it as astro-physics or or really any physics is very far from being my daily subjects of involvement but are much of personal curiosity. So if the massive star that got eaten by the black hole actually got consumed while passing by the black hole then wouldn't it's trajectory have to intersect with the actual event horizon of the black hole in order to be effected or is the animation just not correct? Also wouldn't the mass of the star that got eaten have to be smaller than that or the dwarf star that is apparently circling the black hole emitting those x-rays in order to experience effect of the gravity since the dwarf star manages to circle around without the experience of the same effect? and lastly how come there is any light or debris left circling the black hole? by my logic if the large massive start got engulfed while passing by then there really shouldn't be anything left from it and only hawking radiation would get emitted according to some earlier videos from this channel. Greatly appreciate any potential relative responses :)

Vor 2 years
Dan McKee
Dan McKee

Quick questions from a know-nothing: I'm confused about the dwarf star orbiting the black hole, the one that you described as always there but not visible until the star was sucked in to the black hole. I assume that its orbit is in a place of equilibrium where the gravitational force pulling the dwarf star in matches the centripetal force of the spin pushing it out. But then a star gets sucked into the black hole. Wouldn't that massively change the gravity of the black hole? According to your explanation, such an event would also increase the spin, but are we saying that increase in mass and increase in spin are equivalent somehow? Or did the dwarf star change its orbital pattern after this event? I guess we can't compare before & after, but is it in any way possible that it DIDN'T change its orbital pattern after such a dramatic event? How would a star getting sucked into a black hole change the trajectory of an object already in orbit around that black hole? Wouldn't it disturb the orbital pattern greatly in the short run, then, settling down, cast the dwarf star into a new long-term orbital pattern? The bigger implication of what I'm asking is whether the dwarf star was actually there and orbiting in that manner before the event, or if the event introduced the dwarf star into orbit or somehow dramatically changed its orbit. Thanks for the time, and thanks especially for the great videos.

Vor 2 Monate
RyanRising
RyanRising

5:22 isn’t the reason you can’t infinitely spin up a black hole beyond that limit because they drag space-time along with them? If it were spinning that fast, an object dropping into the black hole would be deflected in the direction of the spin, meaning ones that would add to its angular momentum get sort of deflected away and stuff that subtracts from the angular momentum gets deflected towards it, if I understand it right. EDIT: ok, looked this up. In more relevant terms, shouldn’t frame-dragging provide a strong theoretical reason why black holes can’t be spun up to the point where they become a naked singularity?

Vor year
SmarterEveryDay
SmarterEveryDay

My flight is taking off. I want to know about black holes! EDIT: HOLY COW MAN I can't imagine how much research you did for this! I've always wondered how star diameters are approximated. Thank you so much for this! Bravo!

Vor 3 years
BİR İNSAN
BİR İNSAN

@Veritasium can you not put scary music

Vor 10 Monate
Miguel Chipps Inteligente
Miguel Chipps Inteligente

Tesla referenced human energy 🌬👻jesus christ referenced living waters 💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓science described water memory 🌊🎭psalms16:24 k,j proverbs27:19 existence psychologically god bless fight the good fight 💖👻💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓🗽🤍⚖🌪🌬

Vor year
Chris
Chris

Why can you use newtonian physics to measure the mass of black holes via it's interactions with other bodies that can't be measured by newtonian physics?

Vor year
MOON KNIGHT
MOON KNIGHT

@Mike Parker Very intresting question I have also wondered about it sadly it has been 2 years and no reply from Veritasium.

Vor year
Cybernaut13
Cybernaut13

I am in awe of your videos and how you masterfully explain them by not only teaching a class but the whole internet.

Vor year
AI fan
AI fan

Hey Derek, what exactly is spinning i.e. what is there to spin if it is really a singularity? Also, if you have 2 black holes of indentical size, in close proximity, with acretion disks on precisely the same plan, but one is inverted wrt the other (so that they are spinning opposite to each other), if matter in both acretion disks is moving at >.5c, what happens when matter from one disk collides with matter from the other as the blackholes spiral in to each other?

Vor year
AI fan
AI fan

@Victor-Marius Pîrvan The question was about matter impacting matter where their closing speed is > c

Vor 5 Monate
Victor-Marius Pîrvan
Victor-Marius Pîrvan

My guess is that some matter will be exchanged between the two black holes and some will escape their stable spinning orbit.

Vor 5 Monate
Onder Ozenc
Onder Ozenc

Thanks a lot for this video. That spinning phenomenon looks to be due to the coriolis force. I would like to know about the black holes magnetic fields too.

Vor year
P. A. Wiley
P. A. Wiley

Out of all the channels I don't understand, this one is my favorite. I'm partially kidding, of course; much of the math is beyond me, but Muller does brilliantly to help make complex science more accessible for those of us without a significant background in physics and mathematics, but no lack of curiosity.

Vor 4 Monate
Peter Lostroh
Peter Lostroh

Great job love your videos, in respect to Black Holes do they spin in any particular direction or are they subject to forces Such as we would understand here on earth ie: the coriolis effect which we understand here in the North South hemispheres.

Vor 3 years
Marinara Marcato
Marinara Marcato

I love your videos, thank you so much for the time and effort put into creating them. They are great for communicating science people wouldn't know otherwise!

Vor 2 years
Nick Wilcox
Nick Wilcox

@Miguel Chipps Inteligente ... what...?

Vor 6 Monate
Miguel Chipps Inteligente
Miguel Chipps Inteligente

Tesla referenced human energy 🌬👻jesus christ referenced living waters science 💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓science described water memory 🌊🎭psalms16:24 k,j proverbs27:19 existence psychologically god bless fight the good fight 💖👻💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓🗽🤍⚖🌪🌬

Vor year
Tev
Tev

If we weren’t affected by radiation somehow, would it be possible to “hear” the spin of a black hole as it travels supersonic and the sound is carried via (radiation or some other form of) waves?

Vor year
Jonas
Jonas

I guess

Vor year
opticnirvana
opticnirvana

I wonder, if you knew the spin and mass of a star before it became a black hole, and then measured the spin of the black hole after it became such, could you determine if the singularity has a size? Shrinking to zero size sounds to me as if it would have an infinite spin.

Vor 2 years
Mc Spicy
Mc Spicy

What would happen if the spin of a black hole was greater than the force of the black holes pulling? How close would the matter get?

Vor year
Mark Simpson
Mark Simpson

Sheer enjoyment! Thanks for these, Derek. Amazing. I am interested in backholes but r-isco is new to me.

Vor year
acidrock
acidrock

I was referred to Veritasium by Michael from Vsauce. he said this channel is great and I can now see why. I appreciate when teachers are unambiguous and don't talk down to me or try to be complicated.

Vor year
Dr D
Dr D

This was a very interesting and well explained video :) Loved it

Vor year
SMG043
SMG043

Excellent presentation as always, thanks for the education.

Vor Monat
sundar
sundar

Dude I might have cursed a few times before for not giving due importance to ancient wisdom of India. your channel and your work is phenomenal as I think others are struggling to explain while you do it in ease.

Vor year
betaneptune
betaneptune

What about the effects of the extreme time dilation near the event horizon. Doesn't that prevent matter from entering the black hole as seen by distant observers, like us?

Vor year
Cosmalano
Cosmalano

Fantastic video. Well made, great info. I just wonder, why the use of the word spin? Rather than angular momentum.

Vor 2 years
volrath77
volrath77

Interesting. Logically, can a black hole's spin exceed 1? If 1 = light speed, wouldn't the r-isco also frame drags space immediately at the event horizon (and possibly a distance just above it) to also light speed and cause particles there to also orbit at light speed. If matter cannot reach light speed, wouldn't it stand to reason that the spin also cannot reach or exceed 1?

Vor year
Aashish Bharadwaj
Aashish Bharadwaj

How can you measure angular velocity using linear velocity measurement? The spin is measured in rotations per second, not in any vector. We can measure the speed of material on the accretion disc.

Vor Monat
Paul Mahoney
Paul Mahoney

You know, I wonder if humanity will ever become so advanced we could try feeding a black hole matter spinning in the same direction to see if we can make it spin to the speed that could form a naked singularity.

Vor 11 Monate
Scrimjaw
Scrimjaw

See this makes me wonder how scientists can be sure there is a maximum spin speed. Part of, or maybe all the reason as to how/why/what black holes are could be down to the speed at which they spin. The speed observed in the horizon could just be when it starts to pick up.

Vor 2 years
Martin P.
Martin P.

As always, great explanation and animation. Keep it up.

Vor 7 Monate
BabakoSen
BabakoSen

Just FYI, redshift can only be used to calculate distance at very large extra-galactic distances where the expansion of the universe accounts for most of the object's observed motion. At distances where we can resolve individual stars from stellar clusters (as opposed to resolving individual stellar discs), which we can only do within our galaxy and some members of the local galactic group, cosmological redshift can't be used because the Doppler shift primarily traces the stars' peculiar motions within their galaxies or of their host galaxies through their group or cluster. We can use stellar spectra to gauge a star's distance, but to do so we have to compare the spectra to stellar evolutionary models to distinguish dwarfs and giants of the same temperatures and estimate the star's intrinsic luminosity at that stage in its life. For isolated stars (not part of a multiple system or cluster but free-moving in the galactic potential), stellar evolutionary models are often the best distance-estimating tools available, and that's not saying a whole lot.

Vor 3 years
justinjah91
justinjah91

@BabakoSen Absolutely, Caroll and Ostlie is a great text!

Vor 3 years
BabakoSen
BabakoSen

@Arion Eich "An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics" by Carroll and Ostlie is pretty much *the* essential text for astrophysics at the undergrad level and early graduate levels. If you wanna get more specific, Phillips' "The Physics of Stars" was used in one of my grad courses, but I think it's written straightforwardly enough for an undergrad to use by their junior year or so. I never really got a chance to use my "Stellar Interiors" book by Hansen, Kawaler, and Trimble before I got shunted into the star formation field, but first impressions are that it's pretty standard grad-level stellar structure stuff.

Vor 3 years
Ricardo Ramírez R
Ricardo Ramírez R

Thank that someone points that out. Calculating distance of stars in our galaxy with redshift does not have any sense.

Vor 3 years
TIMELESS USERNAME
TIMELESS USERNAME

Was scrolling to see if someone else had commented on this. Fortunately for us, we're living in an era where increasingly more and more isolated stars have parallax-based distances from Hipparcos, Gaia, etc.

Vor 3 years
Arion Eich
Arion Eich

I know what text books I need to pick up next...

Vor 3 years
bad matter
bad matter

i've tried looking online but can someone explain to me why saturn's rings formed in a ring and not just floating as debris scattered around the planet? the spinning of this reminded me of it and i can't find an explanation of why they would flatten into a ring rather than scatter. is it because of the spin of the planet around the sun, causing the rocks to move with it in that circular pattern? but still they're so clear and refined

Vor 2 years
Harry Nicholas
Harry Nicholas

i would be interested in time scales for cosmic events, obviously animation runs at a speed that lets us see the action, real time could take weeks or be gone in a flash, but it's hard to get a grasp of cosmic events, some do take seconds, some take days and others take years, but black holes, galaxies, exploding stars, all these things are a bit hazy to me time-scale wise, stuff might be flying off a star near the speed of light, but it could still be years before a jet of gas, or a cloud of dust can be detected. i'll look, but are there any vids that talk about how long different cosmic events take? thanks.

Vor 2 years
Gaetan Luabeya
Gaetan Luabeya

Thank you for the explanations. Great work thank you

Vor Monat
Gaetan Luabeya
Gaetan Luabeya

Thank you for the explanations. Great work thank you

Vor Monat
Robert Kemper
Robert Kemper

Another fascinating explanation of a cosmic event! One minor issue. Would you mind discontinuing the use of the phrases "Gravitational pull," "Gravitational field," etc? I recognized that in common use these terms are what folks are used to hearing. (Someone you may know did a great job of explaining why gravity is not a force). That won't change until experts use GR terminology that correctly describes the situations discussed. Consider these lost teaching moments.

Vor year
Ennovative
Ennovative

Some things were just always meant to be beyond our comprehension. Understanding the universe without science would be like trying to explain to a house cat how big the earth is when it has never even been outside. Even if you could explain something to a cat, there is no way it would be able to wrap their head around just how massive Earth is. Right now, I feel like that house cat looking outside and wondering how much is out there.

Vor year
pirjsuka
pirjsuka

What about the outer radius of the disc, the speed of particles there is nearing the speed of light and they are able to escape the enormous gravitational force? Are all those orbits stable, between r_isco and the outer radius? What if the spins of the two collapsing black holes match, does the increase of the total mass compensate, and the resulting spin is still limited to that certain number of rotations per second? It's a very interesting and important fact that black holes don't have a radius on their own, it's their mass and spin that affect the radius of the event horizon and r_isco. Hope I understand this correctly. Naked singularity deserves a dedicated video. Hope it's not banned by YouTube for nudity.

Vor year
Genius Stuff with ujan
Genius Stuff with ujan

This man deserves a Nobel Prize. His videos are the ones which have motivated me to understand science , not memorize it.

Vor 6 Monate
Rabie Abd El-Samad
Rabie Abd El-Samad

excellent videos man as always please keep it going

Vor 3 years
Daniel Toschläger
Daniel Toschläger

I imagine risco like the whirl in a toilett or bathtube in 3D, as faster it spins (as faster the water floates down the pip/fermions and bosons go down the hole) as steeper and more sharpened the whirl walls are. 😅 You did a very good job in explanation!

Vor Monat
Vinayak Kulkarni
Vinayak Kulkarni

Aliens : sending some flashes in space to see if anyone is out there Scientist : Nah ! Its a black hole

Vor year
Ристу Георгиев
Ристу Георгиев

Since regular pulses are common in the Universe and occur naturally, aliens, who are trying to contact another intelligent life, would have sent some flashes in a distinct pattern - like for example 1 flash at every prime number seconds.

Vor 3 Monate
Emperor Sascharoni
Emperor Sascharoni

Alien making some selfies at blackhole.

Vor 9 Monate
Tᕼᕮ GᖇᕮᗩT SᗩGᕮ Oᐯᕮᖇ ᕼᕮᗩᐯᕮᑎ
Tᕼᕮ GᖇᕮᗩT SᗩGᕮ Oᐯᕮᖇ ᕼᕮᗩᐯᕮᑎ

I was looking for this comment 💀

Vor 11 Monate
Dustin Young
Dustin Young

I struggle with videos like this- when we talk about gravity, the conversation often comes back to General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, but the way we describe gravity in phenomena like this, refers to gravity "pulling" objects rather than "bending spacetime" and i believe the net result is a poor layman's grasp on Quantum Dynamics. But I'm not an expert on astrophysics, just communication, so I could be wrong.

Vor 11 Monate
Hyazza
Hyazza

I have a question about how time behaves inside a black hole, reggarding the spin. If for a distant observer time seems to go slower the closer you are to the singularity, does this mean that at the singularity there's no time for any observer outside the event horizon? If so, how can the accretion disk's r isco be affected by a spin that is not actually happening outside the zero dimensional singularity because of the infinitely slow time? In simple words, how can a singularity spin if there is no time?

Vor 2 years
mrnnhnz
mrnnhnz

question: how fast can a star go before it's torn apart by its own speed? It seems like half the speed of light would be easily fast enough to do this, which would ruin the whole there-was-a-white-dwarf-orbiting-it theory...

Vor year
Релёкс84
Релёкс84

It's really not a question of speed, but of acceleration. What you're talking about has to do with something called the Roche limit which is the minimal distance from a massive object beyond which moons, planets or stars orbiting it ill start breaking apart. This limit actually depends on the orbiting object's density, and white dwarfs are extremely dense which allows them to orbit very far down.

Vor year
Ian Murdoch
Ian Murdoch

just a few months later, and you'd have been able to show an *actual picture of a black hole*. incredible.

Vor year
Abhas Jain
Abhas Jain

You are great at explaining.

Vor 2 years
Quentin Arnaud
Quentin Arnaud

Nice video ! But I still don't understand something related to black hole's spin, maybe some of you guys can help me. As matter falls into the cosmic oger, it's spin contributes to the black hole's spin, fair. But does matter REALLY fall into the black hole ? I mean, from our perspective, it should not. Matter should appear freezing and red shifting before crossing the event horizon. To me the spin of a black hole should remain constant after it's formation. Where do you guys think is the flaw in this reasoning ? Thanks

Vor 2 years
Superman Ohm
Superman Ohm

Thank you 🙇 without you we won't be able to learn so much 🙏

Vor year
Justin Choo TC
Justin Choo TC

Great video! But this makes me mad that engineers have found a way to make machines adapt to the vacuum of heatless space that can capture light from an infinitetasmal ligjtyears away but not engineer a droid to explore the mariana trench and the crushing depth of our planet's ocean. I know they have been making progress but i wanna know what happens in the Bermuda Triangle, deep sea creatures and myths surrounding lost cities ughhhhh. But still great achievement exploring space. Hopefully not for colonizing but just as visitors

Vor 7 Monate
Timothy Noll
Timothy Noll

Do you guys create these animations and some of the illustrations or are they from a top-secret super-amazing stock website? Either way, they're really helpful and beautiful!

Vor 3 Monate
ALBERT EINSTEIN
ALBERT EINSTEIN

The real question is Does the universe spin

Vor 3 years
cloudpoint
cloudpoint

​@Vady Why does a void need to be created? If one was somehow created, what was there before? An infinite but solid block of lead? No, a void is the absence of creation. It's what you automatically get before anything is created. Space and time are outside of the perspective of the universe and are not things that need to be created. They are merely definitions of two kinds of nothing. But space and time have quantum properties that occasionally allow these voids to interact and transition to a material universe like the one see now.

Vor 4 Monate
Vady
Vady

@cloudpoint Your speculation is what I realized one night too, I've always asked myself, what was before the big bang? Nothing? There must have been something. for it to interact in a way to trigger the big bang, but what created that void space with energy, or quantum empty as you named it, what was before it? And I realized, that's how our brain thinks, we are born and we die, there's a beginning and an end to all things, that's all it has seen for all of it's existence, so it naturally wants to associate brith from nothing, to the big bang dillema, except, that doesn't mean that that's how it has to be, it easily could've just been that, an empty quantum space, forever, with no beginning to it. And if it is anything but that, our brains most likely aren't capable to fathom it, it would be like an ant trying to figure out why your average Joe is depressed.

Vor 4 Monate
SmileFile_exe
SmileFile_exe

*VCAUSE MUSIC INTENSIFIES*

Vor 8 Monate
Dusty Bottoms
Dusty Bottoms

@Boogdoggggg see that what I think.

Vor 9 Monate
cloudpoint
cloudpoint

@Delan Morstik The Universe is everything there is. That’s by definition. A universe is just an invented abstraction so it can mean what we want it to mean. Multiverse conditions may exist, but they would just represent bubble subdivisions of some kind within The Universe. Don’t confuse The Universe with either the Observable Universe or whatever greater but still local region it exists within (a small “u” universe, say). I doubt more than one of these huge subdivisions simultaneously exist because I can’t wrap my mind around the idea of infinite-sized bubbles within an already infinite Universe. Do smaller infinities exist inside bigger infinities? Abstract things like universes don’t really exist anyway, and the space they are said to encompass does not exist either since space is a literally nothing. Just material things within space can exist. Speculation: My understanding is The Universe always existed, it wasn’t created. Before the Big Bang it was just empty quantum space, which intrinsically has energy (due to the uncertainty principle). But empty is still literally nothing. A literal nothing does not need to be created – what’s to be created? At least, there’s no reason to think otherwise. Saying the Big Bang created The Universe (or an instance of it) is mostly wrong. The Big Bang was likely just a phase transition from the quantum void state that The Universe occasionally degenerates into, to a space containing all the material things that we know (e.g. the energy of infinite quantum space partially condensed into matter after hitting an expansion threshold or whatever). This probably happens on a regular basis, like every trillion years for long-lived universe instances (following heat death). Each instance is a kind of a temporal multiverse, maybe with some different laws that depend on the specifics of each transition. If something is in principle not possible to evidence, then we should not absolutely believe in it. Otherwise we could believe in unicorns. But we can speculate logically.

Vor 10 Monate
Lee Minard
Lee Minard

Hey Derek, Pose a question. ( Pt. 4 ) I'm good with all of it, but I have a problem. How does this theory explain the centered, steady state orbit of the rings of Saturn ?

Vor 11 Monate
Necati Gün Akal
Necati Gün Akal

Thats a perfect video, thank you. I d be happy if you could enlighten me about smth. Is the black hole black just because the light cannot escape from it, Or is it the camera that cannot define time twist? For ex, if we watch a black hole "x" years more, could we see a late light?

Vor year
Paul Mahoney
Paul Mahoney

Our understanding of black holes is that anything within their event horizons cannot escape even if it is going at the speed of light

Vor 11 Monate
Comment_Bot432
Comment_Bot432

Wait does that mean as black hole spins faster, their event horizon shrinks? What would happen if you were in a location behind the event horizon and suddenly event horizon shrank allowing you to exit the black hole? I once heard true time travel is possible behind the event horizon. Would this allow us to travel back in time?

Vor 11 Monate
James Lane
James Lane

Could there be an electro magnetic or other force emanating from supermassive black holes that accounts for dark matter? Or counteracts dark energy In areas of black hole concentration. Maybe it is undetectable because it is just the baseline for what we could call 0 in most experiments to detect it. Or am I way too out there!

Vor 2 years
James Lane
James Lane

Another idea, what if spinning or the curving of space time from the supermassive reaches out subtly over enough distance to account for dark matter. Or maybe even time dilation over great distance?

Vor 2 years
Aleksandra Gieralt
Aleksandra Gieralt

Hey! I am wondering, does anyone know if spinning black holes move/spin through space - i.e. are they mobile and could they potentially move into our solar system. Someone asked me this question and I was stumped for an answer, I knew OF spinning black holes but I do not know if they rotate on an axis or if they move through space.

Vor year
Jim Sagubigula
Jim Sagubigula

Yes, the move through space, and rotater.

Vor year
Adam
Adam

What if two black holes with spin 1 in the same direction merged? I guess the net result would still be 1 since the mass doubled the rotational velocity would remain the same to conserve angular momentum

Vor 2 years
Just Some Guy without a Mustache
Just Some Guy without a Mustache

I took up astronomy in college and they never talked about interesting stuff like this

Vor year
༒☬*ToRnADO*☬༒
༒☬*ToRnADO*☬༒

@tigerpjm all the above theories I have stated are unproven CAN'T YOU UNDERSTAND AND THERE IS NOT ONE BUT MANY MANY UNPROVEN ASTROPHYSICS THEORIES . GET THE IN YOUR HEAD

Vor 24 Tage
༒☬*ToRnADO*☬༒
༒☬*ToRnADO*☬༒

@tigerpjm what else do you want

Vor 24 Tage
tigerpjm
tigerpjm

@༒☬*ToRnADO*☬༒ Still waiting for an answer!

Vor 24 Tage
Dosadoodle
Dosadoodle

If time slows down to a standstill near the event horizon, then if we cross the event horizon, does time stop for us? That is, do we stop at the event horizon? If so, would this mean that black holes are layers of objects as they fall in?

Vor 10 Monate
John Hammer
John Hammer

Always wondered how scientists were able to come to conclusions. Would love to see more of this type of videos. Thanks

Vor 3 years
Jacomaat
Jacomaat

quick tought: can a black hole's mass and its spin equal out so no matter gets pulled in anymore? or will it's mass always be to great since it's spin is being created by matter getting pulled into the black hole?

Vor year
Man in The Moon
Man in The Moon

Impressive, as always.

Vor 10 Monate
Hrishikesh Dutta
Hrishikesh Dutta

I love watching your videos. I am not a student of science but I love science. I want knowledge and your channel is the place to acquire knowledge.

Vor 9 Monate
jagadeesh padi
jagadeesh padi

Love your videos ... All the time .... BTW how was it that specifically 4.5B years ago that the collision happened??

Vor 2 years
Holobrine
Holobrine

4:57 Should have chosen diameter, so it would be d_isco Edit: Please sign the petition in the replies if you support this cause

Vor 3 years
Lu Valour
Lu Valour

I think it would be a little difficult to measure than radius/r_isco which makes more sense as it is also more intuitive, but that sounds fun lol

Vor 10 Monate
Ross G
Ross G

Panic at the d_isco = 1

Vor 10 Monate
Shwibi
Shwibi

*signs petition*

Vor year
Iris W
Iris W

I idealize being a physicist/astronomist bc imagine observing this live (and actually knowing what you see and what it means). I could die peacefully thereafter

Vor 5 Monate
GroceryGetter
GroceryGetter

With an accretion disk orbiting fast enough at a far enough orbit, if it was gradually pulled into an orbit with smaller radius, is there any point at which the matter's tangential velocity would stop increasing?

Vor year
joshua daniel
joshua daniel

I don't know if anyone else can relate to what I'm about to say, but when you really think about this and the vastness of the universe, it's truly overwhelming. I couldn't get through the full video, I need a break 😂

Vor 2 years
idman Magar
idman Magar

What effect does spin of black hole has on the space time fabric ?

Vor 11 Monate
Luiggi Pagliarini
Luiggi Pagliarini

School should teach this way. Awesome video as always.

Vor 9 Monate
mkevilempire
mkevilempire

Is 2:43 (gravitational effects of the black hole) recorded images or a simulation? If recorded, do you have details on it?

Vor 2 years
Cr4y7
Cr4y7

I would like to know on what timescales those events take place, like the shredding of a star by a black hole. Is it hundreds of years of millions of years? Or even just a few years?

Vor 2 years
kathan gabani
kathan gabani

what if 2 black holes which were quantum entangled come in close vicinity to each other in isolated conditions?

Vor 2 years
Viper6
Viper6

Black holes are both amazing and scary at the same time.

Vor 3 years
Cookie
Cookie

@Ben Booth I'm just going to comment here, so I can later refer to it.... Thanks for the great explanations!!!!

Vor 3 years
Ben Booth
Ben Booth

Guys, check this video, it talks about the same stuff we've been talking about. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4aqGI1mSqo

Vor 3 years
Ben Booth
Ben Booth

@nikmor 5 Now I'm back from work I'll give a better answer. Any gravitational field is a dent in space-time, that dent is spherical because we are thinking in 3 dimensions of space. Time is also warped, if you were observing an object falling into a black hole, it would become increasingly red-shifted and dimmer until the point where it meets the event horizon where it becomes infinitely red-shifted and infinitely dim. If that object was a clock you would observe that it counted time slower and slower and it would stop at the event horizon. The most basic model of a black hole is called the Schwarzschild metric. A metric is an equation which describes the shortest distance between two points on a surface. An easy example is flat 2 dimensional space, the metric for this surface is Pythagoras. So the Schwarzschild metric describes the geometry of space-time around a non-rotating gravitational object. In this model a black-holes event horizon is perfectly spherical and the singularity is a point with zero volume, finite mass and infinite density. Now in reality there are no non-rotating gravitational objects. A more sophisticated model is the Kerr-Newman metric which described the geometry of space-time around a rotating mass with electromagnetic charge. You may have heard that black-holes can be described with just three numbers, mass, charge and angular momentum and that comes from the Kerr-Newman metric. Now a black-hole in this metric has its event horizon flattened across the poles and the singularity is smeared into a ring. It has been hypothesised that this ring could be a wormhole which leads to a white hole. Its the singularity which holds all the mass, the event horizon is not physical, nothing actually happens at the event horizon it is just a point of no return. As to what an observer would see falling towards an event horizon that's complicated and beyond my ability to fully explain. What I can tell you is this: Imagine falling towards Earth, face first, just before you hit the ground, the Earth would appear to take up nearly exactly half of you sphere of view. For a black-hole, it's scary. The event horizon would appear to wrap around your sphere of view (this happens a tiny bit with Earth, its just so slight that we cant measure it) and at the point where an observer at a large distance would see you hit the event horizon (the point where you become infinitely red-shifted from their perspective) the event horizon would finally close up behind you and you are now permanently cut off from the rest of the universe. The observer sees you become increasingly red-shifted, however if looked behind you as were falling you would see the whole universe become blue-shifted (time speeding up), you would actually see the whole future of the universe play out before you and you would see the end of time just as you were cut-off, providing you could survive the highly focused beam of high-energy gamma-rays which is the light from the rest of the universe.

Vor 3 years
Ben Booth
Ben Booth

@nikmor 5 It's the size of the event horizon :)

Vor 3 years
nikmor 5
nikmor 5

@Ben Booth holy crap value =100 An when we are talking about the sizes of black holes, are we counting the event horizon? And what about the singularity? And are black holes spheres or dents in space-time? Edit: (I watched the video)

Vor 3 years
LeoMascara
LeoMascara

What happens (or is expected to happen) if a star with more mass than a given black hole approaches it? Will the black hole eat the star or will the star "eat" the black hole?

Vor 3 Monate
Zaro2008
Zaro2008

Black Holes are truly one of the most mind blowing things out there 🕳

Vor 10 Monate
Kaiser Epsilon
Kaiser Epsilon

Considering that things that are spinning never want to stop spinning, it would make sense that a star falling into a black hole at an angle would force some more spinning power into the black hole, of course, this would rely upon the idea that black holes are physical objects, which, until we can observe one up close, is still unknown. I am not an expert in this subject, if I am wrong, please tell me how.

Vor year
Tyko bray
Tyko bray

People on earth: "The sun doesnt go around the earth! The earth moves around the sun!" People on blackholes:

Vor year
Leo Ciresi
Leo Ciresi

Muuuuuurph!

Vor 10 Monate
AB isGamer
AB isGamer

@IronHideIII aka they dead

Vor 11 Monate
Cheranetube
Cheranetube

I am curious how someone could dislike this video. Perhaps they have trouble understanding it, the burden of knowledge is too much for them, or perhaps they too, are really uncomfortable with naked singularities.

Vor 3 years
Zoli
Zoli

@bogen broom no

Vor year
no k
no k

Man this video made me existential and depressed

Vor year
Keyan 1
Keyan 1

@Shaun James bro for réal if you go to one of the top comments done by Nikko A there’s a legit flare earther

Vor year
Amanda
Amanda

Perhaps because he is teaching the Really Way Up There Stuff and gets the terminology mixed up on the Basic stuff you need in order to understand that cool way up stuff way up there -- so most folks are like, "huh wow cool, but I don't get it, and now, instead of Be Smarter like I wanted to be when I clicked on video to learn something, now I Feel Dumber -- hmmm maybe 'they' were right about me and I should just stop trying?" Too bad so sad. C'mon guys!! It's D=M/V Density equals Mass over Volume or Density is Mass divided by Volume -- it's so simple and he's saying Mass when he should be saying Density or blarggggg nvm Just Yeah, you're right ... perhaps we're all just Uncomfortable with Our Own Nakedness... lmfao roflcopter gg ^______^

Vor year
Matthew Jogola
Matthew Jogola

What's remarkable to me is that nobody knows how large or how small black holes really are, for all we know, they could be the size of a pinhole with infinite density and we wouldn't know because light couldn't escape a certain point around it. Strange to think about.

Vor 11 Tage
Tiuhtimymman
Tiuhtimymman

Honestly it's kinda scary and sad to think that these things happened millions of years ago. We are seeing these magnificent things so late, that whatever we are looking at might not be there anymore.

Vor 11 Monate
Aaron Paul
Aaron Paul

Can someone please explain this: @ 8:00 He mentioned there was a white dwarf star orbiting the black hole. In that case, why is that star not torn apart by tidal forces like the massive star that created the accretion disk?

Vor 11 Monate
A P
A P

If a star moves that fast, 0.5 speed of light, will time dilation prolong its life?

Vor 2 years
Michael Newman
Michael Newman

I have always had a problem understanding the concept of a "spinning" black hole. This video helps a bit, but..... With my admittedly very layman's understanding of a black hole, I thought that we conceptualize a singularity as a "one dimensional" point in space-time. If it is spinning though the singularity must be spherical, right - not a point? What is actually spinning? Is the mass at the singularity still regarded as existing in three dimensions? As I understand it don't we say that mathematically time stops at the singularity? How does anything spin without doing so in time? I guess you can't really answer this if our current laws of physics, including relativity "break down" at the singularity?

Vor year
Mihnea Urs
Mihnea Urs

If Isco equals /touches the event horizon how would that make the light escape the black hole rather that the whole accretion disk be swallowed into it?

Vor year
stat a87c
stat a87c

How can a well in spacetime be spinning in spacetime? What is ACTUALLY spinning and how can we even tell if everything that ever fell into it never passed the horizon from our reference frame?

Vor 2 years
Alejandro Sánchez
Alejandro Sánchez

Now I am confused. If the dwarf star is spinning around the black hole and we can see the back part of the accretion disk because of the black hole warping the light behind it, shouldn't the telescopes also display the light of the dwarf star when it is behind the black hole?

Vor 11 Monate
SriZeN Shahi
SriZeN Shahi

Just imagine our own solar system running into a black hole

Vor year
GerryDT
GerryDT

How does the spin effect the event horizon?

Vor 2 years
Rico G
Rico G

What sort of temperatures do accretion disks reach ? How luminous are they compared to regular stars ? Do accretion disks emit gamma radiation ?

Vor 2 Monate
Maxime Mercier
Maxime Mercier

its astonishing how complex space is !

Vor year
hang da clown
hang da clown

amazing what one can tell simply from the light emitted from distant objects

Vor 3 years
930 8323
930 8323

​@thehoovah It's part of its charm. Of course, we can't really say ANYTHING 100% for sure (this could all be just the matrix and we wouldn't know) but we still try to understand the universe around us with the current information we have. If, however, this is proven to be incorrect, then that just meant that there's a better explanation that we have yet to find and the journey to learning about this phenomenon begins anew. This time, we are equipped with a better understanding than last time (since we DID disprove the previous theory and what made that possible didn't come from nowhere).

Vor 3 years
thehoovah
thehoovah

It's easy to form theories about things that no one can physically verify... There have been hundreds of scientific theories disproven over the years. This information is no less susceptible.

Vor 3 years
hang da clown
hang da clown

arguably less considering the public fear of science for eons, pushed by religious institutions

Vor 3 years
Jonathan Kehn
Jonathan Kehn

Or the lack thereof...

Vor 3 years
mr_brown
mr_brown

And a 1000 years of science

Vor 3 years
Silvio Francisco
Silvio Francisco

Hi Derek. Everything fine. But there is a problem here. It is impossible to hide behind a black hole. For instance, if a star gets eclipsed by a black hole, its image, seem from a point of view far apart, turn into a ring that goes around the shade of black hole (the edge of the visible event horizon) and merges with itself again on the other side. A white dwarf that is orbiting the black hole doesn't get dimmer as it passes behind the black hole. How can we observe periodic oscillations on the intensity of the white dwarf x-rays if it doesn't get dimmer? I think some ingredient in your explanation, which is wonderful, is missing. Perhaps the oscillations in the intensity are due to a different effect. Yes, you are right. It is due to red shifting caused by the spin. I think this point is not so clear in your (wonderful) explanation. I think as you are giving the correct explanation, the CGI are suggesting a different story. One see that the white dwarf disappears as it passes behind the black hole.

Vor 2 years
Tommy Gunrunner
Tommy Gunrunner

2:56 "it's generally accepted that black holes are at the centers of most galaxies" Does that mean it's generally accepted that some galaxies don't have black holes? What is the alternative to a black hole to keep a galaxy together?

Vor 11 Monate
Tommy Gunrunner
Tommy Gunrunner

@Релёкс84 interesting. Obviously the addition of dark matter is required here too. I just didn't realize a black hole alternative at galactic centers was viable. Am I getting this right? What other central galactic phenomenon is proposed, if any?

Vor 11 Monate
Релёкс84
Релёкс84

Black holes don't keep galaxies together : the galaxy's own mass and especially its dark matter does that. There are no galaxies that are confirmed to not have a supermassive black hole, but it's not impossible such galaxies exist.

Vor 11 Monate
roggenbif
roggenbif

It still amazes me how strong black holes are because they emit no light. But it is still there because if they were to explode it’s a massive firework

Vor 2 years
Mason Kungle
Mason Kungle

What I'm hearing now is that black holes go through a certain amount of dormancy and then feeding frenzies. So when they say a star got too close and.torn apart, could it also be that black holes brings them in with discerning gravity?

Vor Monat

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