Optimising a Magnetic Launcher

  • Am Vor 2 Monate

    Tom StantonTom Stanton

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Tom Stanton
Tom Stanton

Offset your carbon footprint with me on Wren! We'll plant 10 extra trees for the first 100 people who sign up! https://www.wren.co/start/tomstanton

Vor Monat
Edward VanNoy
Edward VanNoy

Very interesting Experiments like this make me feel that "free energy" is possible, but being withheld by the big banks,big oil and power companies. What do you think.

Vor 17 Tage
Mat Mamat
Mat Mamat

When are you Gonna make artificial Gravity concept in 3D or prototypes waiting it to be made of the unsolved problems! That would be Great in terms of real life Science!! Thanks!

Vor 21 Tag
Nou Uon
Nou Uon

@Cristian Pop it would be interesting

Vor Monat
Cristian Pop
Cristian Pop

Hi Tom! Can you look into making a bladeless drone, similar to the Dyson purifiers? I'm curios if it would fly and how efficient it is.

Vor Monat
TrickyNekro ́s ELab
TrickyNekro ́s ELab

Try, instead of having a capacitor bank, to put your capacitors spread along the coils / switches under the rail, that should help. The rabbit hole can go a lot deeper. The problem is not only the resistance of the wires but also their own inductance. Also, I do not know if you do, but try using dedicated mosfet drivers instead of microcontroller pins. The harder you switch them, the less energy is going to be wasted on heat. Don´t forget the flyback diodes!

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Nicholas Rehm
Nicholas Rehm

It’s all fun and games at the Nerf match until Tom shows up with a handheld version of this with an automatic trigger and backpack mounted battery

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lem on9
lem on9

He can literally shoot missile

Vor 18 Tage
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

Vor Monat
Derrick Sands
Derrick Sands

This with nerf rival ammo with a steel bearing in the middle

Vor Monat
Andrew DeMartino
Andrew DeMartino

ah the kid friendly rail gun

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Wing Chung YEUNG
Wing Chung YEUNG

Tom will be nerf for being overpowered

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Dan Wood
Dan Wood

That slow motion shot of the launch sled falling away from the glider looked fantastically elegant, awesome project!

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Tom Fahey
Tom Fahey

Problem is the sled carries away a whole lot of the gained momentum, rather than it being transferred to the plane itself.

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cnmmd qiuoo
cnmmd qiuoo

given current.

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Colin Winterburn
Colin Winterburn

Tom is a young man who gives me a positive feeling toward the future. We need to support people like him.

Vor Monat
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

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Greg Petrics
Greg Petrics

But how does it produce value for shareholders?!

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Joseph Wisniewski
Joseph Wisniewski

As others have pointed out, you need to either increase coil spacing with distance, or increase your control speed, which means hitting the coils harder down the line. One way to do that is to distribute the capacitor bank down the length of the gun, adding caps as you approach the end. Your existing system is running out of power as the projectile advances, when you want to be increasing power as it advances in a system with constant spacing. One way to advance the design is to simulate the system. There are SPICE models for coils and moving magnets that can help simulate this whole thing. There are also tricks to shunting flyback into the next coil…

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Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

Vor Monat
Joseph Wisniewski
Joseph Wisniewski

@Michael Goelz One or the other, yep.

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Michael Goelz
Michael Goelz

This guy used the word 'shunt' therefore he either knows his shit or is really bad at insulting people.

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cnmmd qiuoo
cnmmd qiuoo

will overall be reduced. Keep up the great content.

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Чё Бля
Чё Бля

I love how this channel started as modelling planes and various flying ... things (some of them is hard to describe) but then evolved into trebuchets and now its about building a coilgun.

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Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

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kindlin
kindlin

I know sarcasm is hard on the internet, everyone, but we're just taking our lead from the video.

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ULSS ' PLAY
ULSS ' PLAY

@Чё Бля Ты типо шутки не понимаешь?

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i eat nazis
i eat nazis

@kindlin haha i’m going to say something that’s wrong and say it’s a joke. very funny.

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Treacherous Saint
Treacherous Saint

cough cough

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M Sachin
M Sachin

Honestly, your channel is such a gold mine. This is one of the best demonstrations of the engineering process at work: you find the issue, you think of a solution, and then you tinker and optimize until you've achieved what you've set out for. You demonstrate this whole process so eloquently in your videos that it's inspiring

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Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

Vor Monat
Ivory AS
Ivory AS

M Sachin I honestly find myself impressed half the time I'm watching.

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Daniel Keyes
Daniel Keyes

I like that he has brought up excel for all the crap I've built I haven't used it since high school was a great reminder haha!!

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Jack Martinelli
Jack Martinelli

But I'll bet it wasn't that easy.

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Qwarzz
Qwarzz

I especially liked the process of finding an issue, fixing it, begin happy it worked and then figuring out that it worked for completely different reason than what you thought you were doing.

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Torch & Pitchfork PAC
Torch & Pitchfork PAC

Love how the spreadsheet graph matches your test data. You might try flipping the sensors so they tell you when the sled is leaving the coil. Then play with successively larger distances between coils as many have commented. The spreadsheet will help maximize acceleration per coil prior to a rebuild. A fixed distance between coils locks in a maximum speed since pulse timing is critical as speed increases.

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Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

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BlenderTimer
BlenderTimer

The way the sled detached from the glider was amazing!

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Cameron Tacklind
Cameron Tacklind

As others have mentioned, kinetic energy goes up with the square of the velocity. Another way to increase power is to add a flux return path for the magnetic fields. There might be a solution in chaining linearly but, especially for this setup, I think just a chunk of iron in like a "C" shape, oriented Up, around the track, would get you ~3x improved magnetic performance. You'd wrap the iron with your coils and trigger it the same way. Iron is good for these low frequencies but higher frequencies need different core materials. It also makes the steel the "force carrier", as in what actually gets pushed on. It can be a lot easier to hold onto steel than to coils. Notice the individual wire of the foreground coil moving at 10:01 in the video. Eventually that wire will fail as copper fatigues/work hardens quickly...

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Allen Engasser
Allen Engasser

Greater acceleration per coil could be achieved by having steel "C" cores reduce the reluctance of each magnetic circuit. Using steel cores would increase the magnetic flux for a given current.

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Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

Vor Monat
Helge B
Helge B

but it would also drasticaly increase the inductance of the coils leading to slower current rise times, which have to be countered with higher voltage

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Incroyables Expériences
Incroyables Expériences

A way to know which reason is the most limiting would have been to make a regression, it the curve is close to an exponential it's mostly a back EMF reason, if the curve is close to a square root, it's mostly due to kinetic energy (harder and harder to increase for a given power).

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Incroyables Expériences
Incroyables Expériences

@muggzzzzz No, the back EMF (voltage) is in the other way but the current still flows is the same way. A diode would only prevent to use the linear motor as a generator if a magnet was sliding very fast (the back EMF would be higher than the power supply).

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st1300 r
st1300 r

@muggzzzzz that won't work. A magnet moving past a coil will generate a voltage. Back emf is not a problem. It is just a fact and the reason a motor doesn't draw locked rotor current at idle under no load. If say you put a reverse diode across a relay coil you are shunting the collapsing magnetic field and preventing a high voltage spike but you're still dumping the energy. It doesn't prevent it.

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muggzzzzz
muggzzzzz

You could just connect a powerful diode to prevent the back emf.

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Ivory AS
Ivory AS

Incroyables Expériences Hey, a French YouTuber! Guess I'll head over to your channel to practice some.

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st1300 r
st1300 r

@Troy Walker if you double the speed you have 4 times the energy. If you are moving the magnet fast enough its field (back electro motive "force") cancels the force from the energized coil so no power transfer to the magnet. Think of it as the motor (the power into the coils) equalling the generator (magnet moving past the coils) You'd call it the motors no load current and speed. A motor and generator are the same thing it's a matter of do you put electricity into it so it spins or you force it to spin and get electricity out of it.

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Julian HG
Julian HG

Awesome Tom, loved this one especially, as you dove in to the physics and equations. Can i suggest you add a little led to each coil circuit so in the slomo we can see them triggering? Awesome job!!!

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حسنين ماهر ال نجار 21 Hassanein Al-Najjar
حسنين ماهر ال نجار 21 Hassanein Al-Najjar

Contentment is an indispensable treasure 🌹🙂 .

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Julien Peyregne
Julien Peyregne

This project is amazing ! Thank you very much for sharing this. Good job for this design improvements. Love the way the plane get off the slide this is engineering !

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dennis hill
dennis hill

Mad respect. Great stuff. Found it very interesting, especially your passion for knowledge and problem solving.

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David Milner
David Milner

Love how much work you put into this experiments. Thank you

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ZoonCrypticon
ZoonCrypticon

Excellent! Could you also apply a low stream of air flowing along the rail to decrease the friction and thus increase the velocity?

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Michael Woodward
Michael Woodward

Great project and video. If you are still looking to optimise further, I would suggest freewheeling diodes on the transistors, putting a fat cap in parallel with the lithium batteries and increasing the distance between the sensor and the coil towards the end of the rail(so it has a bit more time to turn on). Keep up the great content!

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Thomas Kay
Thomas Kay

Love the vid, would having both magnets be able to launch the glider faster? I think it would be less affect by the extra mass. I'm not certain it's just the first thought that came to my head.

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laremere
laremere

2 thoughts: Instead of velocity vs distance graph, try using an energy/time graph. Kinetic energy is equal to velocity squared, so if energy increase is constant, then a velocity/time graph would look like sqrt(t). Using distance instead of time also skews things, and you switch to using time instead of distance for the battery graphs. My guess is that a good curve to have in energy/time graph is a straight line. I love your constant attempts to use super capacitors only to find out batteries work better. Definitely a consistent theme of the channel. I think we both just think super capacitors are so cool and want to find uses for them :) I wonder - capacitors definitely have faster response times than batteries when load changes, while batteries can sustain the load better. Their strengths and weaknesses compliment each other. Did you try connecting both the capacitors and the batteries in parallel?

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Per Westermark
Per Westermark

@varun koganti I think you missunderstood the use of "loss" in the comment. He didn't mean power loss. The decoupling capacitors are there to reduce the *voltage* loss (obviously more often called voltage drop) in the wiring up to the current consumer. And his use of impedance was good because there is both inductance and resistance in the wires - a twice as high current spike will give a twice as large voltage drop from pure rwsistance in the wire, so the decoupling capacitors makes a big difference to keep the voltage up at a consumer with pulsed loads.

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vince pap
vince pap

To be quite frank, it would probably best to have a position vs time graph instead since you cannot accurately measure the velocity as the projectile is constantly accelerating. What he measures is the average velocity over a fixed distance rather than the true instantaneous velocity. If you wanted a true energy vs time graph, you would need to find the line of best fit for the position vs time, and then take its first derivative which then could be used to find 1/2mv^2

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Aaron
Aaron

Super capacitors are great if used as a primary in explosive situations. No primary explosives needed.

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varun koganti
varun koganti

@tboy32 decoupling capacitors are not used as a means to reduce power loss, they act as semi current source when the chip sinks more current(inductance of PCB trace resists this.). You are essentially inductors in this case no point using capacitors.

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dylan valbuena
dylan valbuena

first thought went over my head, but I noticed the same thing for thought bubble two. the combination of both super cap and battery might provide a further stable voltage and current demand

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cowcar87
cowcar87

Excellent video, Tom. Very interesting and clearly presented data that you've provided. Keep up the great work. Slow-mo was amazing.

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Ethan Hale
Ethan Hale

I love watching the progression by tweaking certain factors. I also learned a lot as you walked us through the process. Keep up the great work!

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cnmmd qiuoo
cnmmd qiuoo

This is a really fascinating project, thank you for doing it!

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Paul Deck
Paul Deck

This is a really fascinating project, thank you for doing it!

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Coneshot
Coneshot

I built a mass driver as a science fair project back in the '80's, I got around the curve flattening by progressively spacing the driver coils further apart as they went down the track. My reasoning was like a transmission in a car the impulses then match the speed of the projectile as it accelerates.

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jim skywaker
jim skywaker

i think i have seen this on some rollercoasters as well, the fins near the end seem to get further apart

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Xmysef
Xmysef

Could be because it’s a ”stage” setup, it works by taking the speed/force from the stage before it and doubling it. The thing with ”parallell” setups is that it accelerates to a certain point until the speed and velocity is equal to the amount of time it takes to pass each coil. So yeah, what you said is quite accurate

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Always Censored
Always Censored

@Anabolic Catalyst Gordon Dickson Dorsai series.

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Mad Scientist
Mad Scientist

This was also my recommendation for his prior vid. Although I was more focused on the speed of his microcontrollers.

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Robin L.
Robin L.

so rather like how a car's 5th gear doesnt have the same torque as first?

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Kriss Femmpaws
Kriss Femmpaws

Tom I find this very interesting, the thought that came to my mind is what happens if you increase the center to center distances of your coils say .125 mm with each coil. This would in effect change the winding timing, this is done on some EV motors to gain rpm for a given voltage.

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Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina

DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾

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Andrew Howard
Andrew Howard

Excellent stuff. I'd love to see the effect of spacing the coils a little more.

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Monster Pumpkin
Monster Pumpkin

I absolutelly love your optimization videos ! Not only are they very entertaining, they are also extremely informative, giving both information regarding the topic and insight into the mind of an engineer

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the agile aardvark
the agile aardvark

I'm amazed by the perfect separation of sled and printed plane. Were there more iterations of it before it worked like this?

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mincrmatt12
mincrmatt12

An intuitive way (without just plugging in kinematics) to think about why it _looks_ like each subsequent coil imparts less velocity is this: while they all accelerate by the same amount, the projectile is moving faster past later coils, and so accelerates for less time.

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無名賢者
無名賢者

I wish I had the resources, mostly the space, to do projects like these. Glad to live vicariously through you, keep up the good work!

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Gophergames
Gophergames

Very clever and well done. I especially like how you got the plane to stay attached till the end

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Rock girl
Rock girl

cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!

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JC
JC

I feel like randomly seeing someone using a trebuchet in England wouldn't look that out of place 🤣🙏👍

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qopoy dnon
qopoy dnon

cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!

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dcoog anml
dcoog anml

cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!

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zuygj bnsv
zuygj bnsv

cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!

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Octavio Mariani
Octavio Mariani

That take off was amazing. Looked like a real hi tech launching system.

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John Green
John Green

The air gap is still ~40mm long. The other side of the electromagnet is open, so the magnetic flux has to flow to the next electromagnet via air. The overall reluctance is still quite high and can be greatly reduced by tying backs of electromagnets with an iron bar and using a magnet that partially overlaps 2 electromagnets.

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Mathew Cherrystone
Mathew Cherrystone

@John Green I'm not sure if that is what he meant. In an electrical motor the maximum speed is mostly determined by the induction happening between stator and rotor, because of the moving magnets. What I was talking about was the self inductance of any coil, that limits the current flow, when it is powered and extends the tme it takes to turn it off.

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John Green
John Green

@Mathew Cherrystone yes, this is the maximum speed limit Tom was talking about in the video. It can always be raised by reducing the number of turns in windings, like in any motor. There would be other practical problems, for example the perpendicular pull on the magnets would be strongly increased (I mean ~2 orders of magnitude), so mechanical design and balancing electromagnets on both sides would be very important.

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Mathew Cherrystone
Mathew Cherrystone

Introducing an iron flux guide would likely increase the inductance of the coil. Not sure, if it would still turn on fast enough.

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Tyler Hargrove
Tyler Hargrove

or... a greater density of electromagnets

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Dougal Tolan
Dougal Tolan

I would look at replacing each coil pair with a single coil and an iron yoke under / through the track. Probably use a sled with just 1 magnet instead of 2 side by side.

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Mackdaknife6669
Mackdaknife6669

cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!

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GordieGii
GordieGii

Nice project Tom. Did you consider using one super-cap per coil (pair) so each one would fire at full voltage?

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Benjamin Morrish
Benjamin Morrish

Many, many years ago I made one of these with my physics teacher at school, I was happy when we exceeded 5m/s and that's where it ended (along with the school year!). This thing is awesome and all props but more to the point, I finally have a video to show people to explain the principle!

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Bjorn de Jong
Bjorn de Jong

you make physics so much more interesting keep it up

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3D Printer Academy
3D Printer Academy

cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!

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Voidsand
Voidsand

Its not a linear induction motor - only since the projectile is a magnet. If anything, the magnet is inducing a back current into the coils (hence the use of smaller coils) which only serves to slow down the acceleration, thats the only place that induction is happening, but its unintended

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Mary Zmijski
Mary Zmijski

@3D Printer Academy more efficient

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3D Printer Academy
3D Printer Academy

@Mary Zmijski what is the difference between LIM and LSM?

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Tarehjerne Tarehjerne
Tarehjerne Tarehjerne

This is not an induction motor.

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Click It
Click It

@The Scubersteve Yes, Mary is right. This is more of a LSM.

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Lucas Henrique Carneiro
Lucas Henrique Carneiro

Amazing! Please continue to work in this Launcher.

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Matthew Cruikshank
Matthew Cruikshank

I'd recommend lightly oiling the rails as the friction between the sled and the rails would have a significant effect I think.

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Chris Sloan
Chris Sloan

Seeing the sled drop away from the 3D printed plane is a pretty awesome slow-mo shot. In terms of optimization, I'm curious how much effort you spent optimizing the timing. My understanding is that it would be pretty critical in a system like this, but you don't talk about it, so maybe you've left some more performance on the table? (Or maybe you just felt it wasn't interesting to talk about?)

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Pleyland
Pleyland

The spread sheet section was by far the most exhilarating part of the video. I imagine that the interference from all those magnets must create quite complex patterns. I saw someone mention an induced magnetic field in the sled. Interesting things to consider

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Máté Kovács
Máté Kovács

A few ideas: - You don't have to reverse polarity to also push the sled. You can just use a second Hall sensor located after the coil, and a second winding on the coil wired up in inverted polarity, so when the second Hall sensor turns on the second coil, it will push. With the position of the sensors, I think it can be timed perfectly. Yes it is 2X the components (and thus cost and power draw), but also roughly 2x the force at each magnet, resulting in a speed increase. - With a lubricated sled (and the plastic part of it shaped aerodynamically), most of the drag on the sled would be eliminated. - I've also noticed on the high-speed footage that the coils lean in a bit when active. This is expected as per Newton's third law, but the coild might need to be mounted more sturdily.

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AJF
AJF

@Jack Martinelli Make a video and post it man!

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Máté Kovács
Máté Kovács

@Robert M Kreegier That is only when they are connected to a capacitor, forming an LC oscillator. If you look at current vs time when you turn off the power source (and current is proportional to the magnetic field), a coil by itself would produce an exponentially declining curve, approaching zero as you go towards the end of time. Same goes for capacitors by themselves. But together, they form an oscillator. The resonant frequency is 1/ (2*Pi*sqrt(L*C) ) where L is the inductivity of the coil and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. That is when coils ‘ring’. Now most systems have parasitic capacitors in them even if you don’t connect a real capacitor. For instance, there is a small capacitance between the windings of the coil, and in the transistor used to drive the coil. But yeah, by adding real capacitors and tuning the resonant frequencies to match the speed of the sled at each coil, the polarity could be reverted at the right time. You would need to turn off the oscillator at the right time though, because you don’t want a second pulling half-period to slow down the sled. It would create a nice sine wave when it is on, which is not optimal (the magnetic force is nat always maximum when needed), but simpler in circuitry than reversing the polarity using a switch or more complicated solid-state circuitry.

Vor Monat
Tedlasman
Tedlasman

agree

Vor Monat
Ben Sinor
Ben Sinor

@You_just It would only induce a current if the coil was switched on. With no completed circuit in the other winding you will only induce a potential but almost no current flow. Therefore efficiency loss will be minimal. This is why transformers with multiple taps are fine because the other portion of the winding doesn't have the circuit completed.

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Robert M Kreegier
Robert M Kreegier

I'm not an expert on the subject, but don't coils "ring"? Like, when you remove the power source from a coil, doesn't the magnetic field collapse and then reverse or something? Could he tune the coils so that their resonant frequencies match the speed of the sled entering and exiting their fields?

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wolvenar
wolvenar

Have you tried spacing the coils farther from each other to keep the timing more similar throughout the rail? This only helps with acceleration to a certain point though mainly where the influence of magnetic flux per time period becomes too long or to short. The optimum spacing may be different at different speeds.

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Strvggle
Strvggle

Coolest video series i have watched in a while , Good work and was very relatable to my old physics classes

Vor Monat
Trey Smith
Trey Smith

Wow, that's a fantastic project! Nice work sir!

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Jim Huntley
Jim Huntley

Due to the inductance of the coils, I wonder if the ones towards the end of the rail ever build up full current.

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Amélie Lacroix
Amélie Lacroix

For those still confused about the difference between railguns and coilguns: Railguns use two rails and lots of electricity to launch a projectile with the Lorentz force. Coilguns have a projectile that goes through the center of a group of coils stacked like donuts, with the ones in front of the projectile attracting it and pulling it forward, and ideally, the ones behind it repelling it and pushing it forward. The magnetic launcher in the video uses the same principals as a coilgun, but with the way the coils are oriented, calling it a magnetic launcher would be more accurate since its primary purpose and design is for it to launch stuff from the sled rather than simply using the sled itself as a projectile like a standard coilgun would.

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Sister Perish
Sister Perish

@Hindu Goat Plenty of people say gauss rifle/pistol for coilguns, especially because of Fallout.

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Otzkar
Otzkar

@Hindu Goat ? A coilgun still isn't the same as a railgun tho.

Vor Monat
Hindu Goat
Hindu Goat

yeah but no ones ever heard of coil gun, everyone says railgun regardless of the precise arrangement of the magnets. Its like everyone says 'literally' to mean actually... but it really means 'as per the literature'

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Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana

Thank you for nicely explaining the concept

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LeInfidel
LeInfidel

One question 🙋🏻 how far did the plane go ? Did faster speed = greater distance ? Or was the added weight of the new glider a factor ?

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Adam Landrum
Adam Landrum

Quality videos as always Tom. Way to go!!!

Vor Monat
Graham D.
Graham D.

Hey Tom, this was really cool. Next time maybe you can invert the design and make a plane that's the rail/powersupply, and the a runway that's a stationary magnet. :D

Vor Monat
Twilley
Twilley

Ok so im very interested in printing this glider! Amazing work man! Is there any way you can give me more info on knowing the weight using infill? I use cura. Also print in the orientation as shown in thangs? Thanks!!!

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jebari jihed
jebari jihed

Hi ! nicly done! very good work ! I think using a ring register with a couple multiplexers and buffers will highly increase you control over the switching speed. Since the frequency will be the ring register clock.

Vor Monat
Crypt1cmyst1c
Crypt1cmyst1c

It'd be cool to see how much you could improve this with a linear rail instead of the aluminum extrusion and sliding sled. you'd need a longer rail than the magnet coil drive and a stopper so the bearing carriage didn't fly off the end

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Bram Grim
Bram Grim

love your new sled design especially the plane hook

Vor Monat
Nick Garrett
Nick Garrett

Very interesting. you dramatically increased your velocity. I like to think of the coils as inductors instead of resistors. As the velocity increases, the squarewave pulse you apply gets shorter and shorter. in order to reach maximal current at the critical time, these inductors might benefit from being custom. You could kind of control the acceleration by picking specific inductances. Keep it up!

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Victor's Lab
Victor's Lab

You may be able to increase the final velocity, by spacing the coils farther apart, further down the rail. This will make the launcher longer, but should also make it faster.

Vor 13 Tage
Rat1sully
Rat1sully

Can I recommend looking at supercapacitors that are power density optimised with a much lower ESR. Skeleton technologies are the way to go on that front then your onload voltage drop will be much lower

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GUT BOI
GUT BOI

I have an idea, you can add some lubrication on the sledge. It will work faster. I realize, the navy rail gun use a coil too for their rail gun, connect the sledge first then connect it to the coil in serial. In that serial combination all the current will be resisted by the coil (in serial way) therefore the sledge will not melt caused by the high amp. I would love to see you make it. ;)

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Dwight Davison
Dwight Davison

I do love the idea of reducing the fuel used to take off. I am sure that is a huge amount of fuel at the start of the flight.

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runforitman
runforitman

4:30 I did physics this year and used these a lot, but I've never heard them be called "SUVAT" I assume some call it that because those are the variables it takes? I think we just called them "equations for constant acceleration"

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Dougal Tolan
Dougal Tolan

Just physics having a BODMAS style branding makeover. Pathetic.

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Cameron136
Cameron136

I’ve always seen them called the kinematic equations. And some of the variables had different letters. Maybe it’s an American thing? Or maybe it depends on what subject you’re studying

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Duane Degn
Duane Degn

I used to teach high school physics and this is the first time I've seen the equations called SUVAT.

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Permire Fabrica
Permire Fabrica

We just don't call them somehow special. We just calculate the integral of the acceleration to get the velocity. The benefit is, that the formula found like that is also true for not constant acceleration.

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Nicholas Nelson
Nicholas Nelson

To me they’re called kinematics equations

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Elliot Mapp-Best
Elliot Mapp-Best

Always useful, Always inspiring...!!! Good work Sir.

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Jen Harder
Jen Harder

I started watching your videos and the pneumatic plane really interested me and i was wondering if you could put the files online to print

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Matt Hunter
Matt Hunter

A faster moving projectile has less time to receive a push from the coils, reducing their effect the faster it goes.

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L_Trapp
L_Trapp

You could also try to use the batteries in parallel with the capacitors, that way you can keep the voltage drop a bit less.

Vor Monat
Brandon Ward
Brandon Ward

You could also try launching steel, while it won’t have as much of a generated magnetic field, I feel as if it may give you a acceleration advantage because it’s not canceling itself out therefore allowing more coils(and unlimited amount of coils) throughout the launcher Also you can try dry graphite on your launcher which will make the friction very minimal on your sled(trick used from pinewood derby cars)

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Hello Santa
Hello Santa

If you use steel, it doesn't generate its own magnetic field so the electromagnets would have to provide more power. Not only this, how would you detect and accurately time the coils as hall sensors are now worthless?

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mattmilladb8
mattmilladb8

This is awesome. I want to build a larger one…

Vor Monat
BlueFrenzy
BlueFrenzy

Could something like this be used to give rockets an initial speed boost that allows for a larger payload into orbit?

Vor Monat
Fark Tard
Fark Tard

@10:52 is why I love this channel! Thanks for going to the effort to capture this Tom :) Magic!

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Let's Make
Let's Make

Great video, it was interesting to see the velocity over time

Vor Monat
Jon [0ryn] Westgate
Jon [0ryn] Westgate

Hi Tom, Have you tried increasing the distance magnets towards the end of the array?

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andrew cobb
andrew cobb

Would it be possible to coil the rails, making the contraption more compact, and perhaps taking advantage of centripetal forces to decrease friction as acceleration increases? Just asking.

Vor Monat
travis zane
travis zane

I would recommend using silicon lubricant to help reduce friction of the rail for a higher top speed

Vor Monat
Voltechs
Voltechs

I love this. Such a nerd for this stuff. Nice work. Let's get planes and spaceships using this! I've dreamed of this since I was a little kid.

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plumberman19
plumberman19

Tom, you're my hero! With strong affinity for the mechanical/physical realm, and unfortunately now quadriplegic, I live vicariously through your videos! So now I'm back in school for computer science/software engineering. You're a huge inspiration and I look forward to all your videos Please don't stop uploading.

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Fantabulous Snuffaluffagus
Fantabulous Snuffaluffagus

The final sequence of the glider launch, with the sled falling away, was gorgeous. Is there anything to be gained in using different coils at different locations along the rail? Or variable coil spacing along the rail?

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Lobengula Khumalo
Lobengula Khumalo

Great work Tom, Please retest all configurations (only using Lithium battery supply) and show us the comparison in each case with the coils at progressively increased spacing, so the time between pulses is closer to constant as the skid travels down the rail. I suspect there will be a trade off of the energy loss between pulses and the distance between coils. Maybe it is just the sensor distance to the coil that needs to be progressively increased as we travel down the rail. For the last coil to act on the faster moving body it needs to turn on sooner ? Thanks for all your vid's

Vor Monat
Alex M
Alex M

You should linearly increase the distance between the coils from the start to the end of the rail, otherwise your system will try to maintain a constant speed at some point in the middle of the rail.

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Mikko Rantalainen
Mikko Rantalainen

10:45 That airplane sledge was really clever! Nice design.

Vor Monat
ernie5229
ernie5229

I used to wind and assemble r/c brushless motors. As far as I can tell, they are pretty much identical to your linear motor. The fewer the winds (w/heavier wire) the faster the motor, but the lower the torque. What would happen if you had progressively fewer winds as the carrier went down the track? It would start off at low speed w/high torque, then go progressively to high speed with low torque. Much like gears in a car. The last few coils could be only a few winds (with heavy wire OR multiple strands in parallel) and this would really kick up the speed. Also, work to get the air gap between the coils and the magnet as small as possible. The magnetic attraction (reluctance) drops off as a square of the distance. In motor construction, this is the easiest way to increase efficiency. This is hard to do in mass production, but with a DIY project the effort really pays off. Reduce the gap by a power of two and get four times the output power!

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Mike Smith SylaR
Mike Smith SylaR

@Jebimasta He did design a new sled to reduce this gap. To further reduce it he could reduce the thickness of the plastic between the coil and magnet

Vor Monat
Jebimasta
Jebimasta

I'm a bit confused, is this not what he did? apart from increasing the wire size. He reduced the gap and the number of windings.

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John Bäckstrand
John Bäckstrand

I actually was sure the video was going this route, was surprised to learn it didn't.

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Gadget Deez
Gadget Deez

@tom it's all about the data. What are you using to datalog your battery/capacitor voltages? This would be VERY useful to me. Thanks for your time.

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Bruno Passarelli Gelli
Bruno Passarelli Gelli

the lower velocity increase in the end is due to the magnet spending less time over the influence of the electromagnets. Thus, the impulse (force x time) is smaller, and the impulse is all that matters in this case

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Dan Yochelson
Dan Yochelson

Now you need to work on optimizing the wing shape and other aerodynamic features of the 3D glider so you can try for distance! You could also add a gas thruster and have it triggered by the last set of coils.

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Lyndon Than
Lyndon Than

Awesome video, and I love that you are using your platform to encourage things like Wren. Lots of great thoughts on how to increase performance and optimize this are popping into my head, and then I also think further and debunk them.

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EctoMorpheus
EctoMorpheus

@Lyndon Than it does, I use it and I'm Dutch.

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Lyndon Than
Lyndon Than

PS Wren would not accept someone outside the US it seems

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Divvy
Divvy

That was actually understandable for me (not the equations, they went over my head higher than that plane at the end!!). Very nice video.

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Ondřej Světlík
Ondřej Světlík

Thanks Tom for the hard work, I'm not sure about the math, but did you try increasing the distance between the coils as the speed of the sled rises?

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Ross Wehner
Ross Wehner

I wish I could have liked this video more than one time. So glad that I am a patron - I get joy from supporting Tom, I learn something from each video, and hopefully help these videos reach more and more people to increase our collective knowledge.

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Oyez10
Oyez10

The faster the projectile moves, the fields need to increase in amplitude and decrease in duration over previous stages. Progressively higher voltages with decreasing coil resistances accomplishes this. It gets hairy with the switching in later stages but can be done. Great project Tom!

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Alessandro Giovanardi
Alessandro Giovanardi

use a prediction time for actuating a coil: use a estimated time of actuation of the coil instead of the sensor, use every sensor reading to adjust the prediction for the next coil, like an advance for a piston engine, if you tweak the activation time maybe you can squeeze a little more performace.

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TissuePaper
TissuePaper

IMO this is something that should be added once more lucrative optimizations are made. Optimizations to the hardware design should come before spending a lot of time optimizing software, to avoid wasting time on hardware that doesn't ultimately match your performance expectations.

Vor Monat
Aidan Macnamara
Aidan Macnamara

Cool video! A friend and I were just discussing the issue of sag in regards to the difference between a Lipo and Li-ion for launch as he was not getting the expected launch thrust. Basically this was due to the volts dropping a lot on the Li-ion, resulting in less motor speed and less thrust even though the throttle setting was the same.

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MMO_Joey
MMO_Joey

I stumbled across your channel and let me tell you, what I great find. I just watched how you created your own Ebike motor. *mind blown* Question though, most to all Ebike have brake regen, but do you think there is a way to regen the battery using the pedals or the wheels. For example for each wheel or pedal rotation the bike charges itself? That way you can definitely go a lot further on trips without having to plug in. Not sure if it's possible, but I think if anyone can wrap their head around it and figure it out you can. ;) Challenge accepted?

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Chris
Chris

Awesome work. Your intuition that the distance between the permanent magnet and electromagnet is spot on. I used to work on the design team for a company designing motors for the robotics industry. The gap was one (if not the most) important aspect to control. You've got me wanting to make one of these now! I may have missed it but if you are not already using N52 magnets, see if you can get some of those. Don't worry about the characters following the number, such as N52H. The (H) is to do with the maximum operating temperature.

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Flat Line
Flat Line

Great video again Tom, must admit the maths side of it baffles me, but fascinated by the rules of physics. Just an uneducated thought looking at it, would it be possible to space the coils further apart the further along the track they are to aid in acceleration?

Vor Monat

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