"MAYDAY vs PAN PAN" Why do pilots use these CALLS? Explained by CAPTAIN JOE

  • Am Vor 3 years

    Captain JoeCaptain Joe

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    Dear friends and followers welcome back to my channel and to a great video about the famous MAYDAY and PAN PAN call.
    We´ll be looking at why and when pilots use these calls.

    First off the definition of MAYDAY:

    Mayday is an emergency procedure word used internationally as a distress signal in voice-procedure radio communications.

    It is used to signal a life-threatening emergency primarily by aviators and mariners, but in some countries local organizations such as firefighters, police forces, and transportation organizations also use the term. The call is always given three times in a row ("Mayday mayday mayday") to prevent its being mistaken for some similar-sounding phrase under noisy conditions, and to distinguish an actual mayday call from a message about a mayday call.

    The "mayday" procedure word was originated in 1923, by a senior radio officer at Croydon Airport in London. The officer, Frederick Stanley Mockford, was asked to think of a word that would indicate distress and would easily be understood by all pilots and ground staff in an emergency. Since much of the traffic at the time was between Croydon and Le Bourget Airport in Paris, he proposed the expression "mayday" from the French m'aider ('help me'), a shortened form of venez m'aider ('come and help me').It is unrelated to the holiday May Day.

    Before the voice call "mayday", SOS was the Morse code equivalent of the mayday call. In 1927, the International Radiotelegraph Convention of Washington adopted the voice call mayday as the radiotelephone distress call in place of the SOS radiotelegraph (Morse code) call.

    PAN PAN call definition:
    The radiotelephony message PAN-PAN is the international standard urgency signal that someone aboard a boat, ship, aircraft, or other vehicle uses to declare that they have a situation that is urgent, but for the time being, does not pose an immediate danger to anyone's life or to the vessel itself. This is referred to as a state of urgency. This is distinct from a mayday call (distress signal), which means that there is an imminent danger to life or to the continued viability of the vessel itself Radioing pan-pan informs potential rescuers (including emergency services and other craft in the area) that an urgent problem exists, whereas mayday calls on them to drop all other activities and immediately begin a rescue.

    The exact representation of PAN-PAN in Morse code is the urgency signal XXX, which was first defined by the International Radiotelegraph Convention of 1927.

    But see more in the video on how they are being used accordingly!

    Thank you very much for your time! I hope you enjoy this video!
    Wishing you all the best!

    Your "Captain" Joe

    Big thank you to all other youtubers who provided me with the video material to create this video. Your content is highly appreciated. Please follow their channels:
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VASAviation -
VASAviation -

I had no doubt you would make an awesome video! Congrats and thanks for sharing your kowledge, Joe!! :)

Vor 3 years
chuck477 sein
chuck477 sein

VASaviation i really like the atc radar and the recordings

Vor 2 years
KNT 21
KNT 21

@Captain Joe 👍👍🤣😜 you should tell we Pilots are so busy... So I just copy + paste the info.. 🤣

Vor 2 years
Propa Way
Propa Way

VASAviation - ironically enough, I was watching your Qantas video where the first officer was unwell due to depressurization and the captain declared panpan calls then mayday calls due to the fo being incapacitated... happy I’m subbed to both channels for the extensive knowledge shared 🙂

Vor 2 years
Onin D.
Onin D.

7600 to mute ATC @dipolog tower

Vor 2 years
dipolog tower
dipolog tower

@Marie BCFHS that's expensive. you have to pay for that after investigation.

Vor 2 years
Mason Auto
Mason Auto

I'm not sure about the UK but here in the US pointing a Laser Pointer towards an aircraft is a felony Edit: Well damn. This thread is probably my biggest just for pointing out a legality. Its pretty cool seing this many people share there experiences and knowledge. Thanks guys!

Vor 3 years
Scott Murphy
Scott Murphy

It’s not just a felony, it’s a FEDERAL offence.

Vor 4 Monate
Pat Collins
Pat Collins

@J Corbett Yeah it's in one of those buildings between block 1 and block 40. Also charge this 10 year old child with a felony.

Vor 4 Monate
Jozey Jones
Jozey Jones

People who point lasers at aircraft should be shot. And that shooting should be filmed in 4K. From many angles. And made available for download at cost price. Fantastic Birthday Present. Maybe we could hold a lottery to choose who gets to fire the rifle(s). Sorry, maybe I'm taking this idea too far.

Vor 5 Monate
becomepostal
becomepostal

Yep, it’s illegal everywhere. I have no idea how authorities can find the culprit, though.

Vor 10 Monate
Wade Finley
Wade Finley

@James Lovell What did the US Federal Justice System have to do with Smollett?

Vor 10 Monate
Team Punk
Team Punk

ATC: pilot your engine is on fire! Ryanair pilot: bruh chill.

Vor 2 years
YOYO GAMING YT
YOYO GAMING YT

@Silvian RZ they are hard as heck like -658 feet per minute XD

Vor 27 Tage
Akmal Hadif Gaming
Akmal Hadif Gaming

This is not the right channel for memes about ryanair

Vor year
Henrik
Henrik

That's the afterburner...

Vor year
niccatipay
niccatipay

@Qashqai King Huh, fair point. Fair point Checked with JACDEC, Ryanair is ranked 48 out of 100 and 0 fatal accidents. Report for 2019. PDF download available in site. https://www.jacdec.de/airline-ranking/

Vor year
Qashqai King
Qashqai King

Ryan air has never had a fatal accident. I have flown with Ryaniar, on several occasions I guess you never have, so perhaps you should follow the Lords prayer, not the one which starts "our father which art in heaven" but the one which starts "Oh lord please help me to keep my big mouth shut until I know what I am taking about"

Vor year
Lord Dash Donald Dappington
Lord Dash Donald Dappington

"We need something to say when we're in distress, but it can't be "help", what do you suggest?" "What if we said help..." "Uhuh" "But in *french*" "Genius"

Vor 3 years
pmailkeey
pmailkeey

@Oliver H Now I understand why some people are referred to as 'French Canadian'. It's akin to American English. ;)

Vor 10 Monate
pmailkeey
pmailkeey

@Cheese Despite a bird going through the food processor ?

Vor 10 Monate
pmailkeey
pmailkeey

Clearly, in English, 'SOS' was far too common ????????????? (soss)

Vor 10 Monate
pmailkeey
pmailkeey

I thought the official distress call in any language was 'fuk'. It's only one syllable ! ;)

Vor 10 Monate
baretta369
baretta369

Well it was 1927. Not a lot of people went to school or got very far in school in those times

Vor 10 Monate
James Khan
James Khan

I’m a qualified pilot but every time i hear those mayday words, it sends shivers down my spine.

Vor 2 years
Martin Rushton
Martin Rushton

Ditto for boat skippers

Vor year
Pedro Querido
Pedro Querido

anyway the wind blows... BANG!!!!!

Vor year
Ayesha Tahira
Ayesha Tahira

😣

Vor year
Adolescent Daydreams
Adolescent Daydreams

Im not even a pilot and it sends shivers down my spine

Vor year
Joanna Swerdlow
Joanna Swerdlow

Type rating

Vor 2 years
Chosen Wisely
Chosen Wisely

Pilot: PAN-PAN, MAYDAY, PAN-DAY! ATC: What are you saying? Pilot: IDK, DUDE! WE'RE FALLING DOWN! I'M PANICKING HERE!

Vor 2 years
Song Sisters
Song Sisters

*Pancake*

Vor 3 Monate
pmailkeey
pmailkeey

Very complex communication. 'Fuk' says it all so simply.

Vor 10 Monate
Akmal Hadif Gaming
Akmal Hadif Gaming

They don't use both of it in one emergency

Vor year
campkira
campkira

you train not to...

Vor year
Mert Oncul
Mert Oncul

Hahahahahahahah

Vor year
Dietmar Kuhl
Dietmar Kuhl

Thank you for this helpful video. Again, this makes me much more confident in flying in an airplane. A really good example for experienced pilots who can't be disturbed!

Vor 2 years
Russell Pallas
Russell Pallas

"We are continuing to SPRKY." Gotta love the irony there. 😂

Vor 2 years
Dontbesad Dontbe
Dontbesad Dontbe

Savage 🤣🤣🤣🤣

Vor 7 Monate
#NPClivesmatter
#NPClivesmatter

Exactly,For a moment, I thought they were being witty to diffuse the stress..

Vor year
Matěj Pfeifer
Matěj Pfeifer

😂😂😂

Vor 2 years
Hydropower for the people
Hydropower for the people

That’s what I thought too. What a appropriate coincidence.

Vor 2 years
Tom Tufuor
Tom Tufuor

😂😂😂😂😂

Vor 2 years
Cygnus X-1
Cygnus X-1

Very interesting! Thanks. I recall in tech writing the difference between Warning and Caution, the difference being threat to equipment and threat to life. Not the same thing. But I remember a lot of weird things and though Pan-Pan was only used on yachts.

Vor 2 years
Ray Bankes
Ray Bankes

Thanks for an informative video. Good teaching there sir. One thing to add is that ATC can declare an emergency for you. Many times the pilots have not said they are having an emergency or make the "May Day" call yet ATC understands the gravity of the situation such as a VFR Pilot flying into IMC and they either tell the pilot or just do what they must do to assist the flight and pilot in anyway they can. Keep the good vids coming.

Vor 2 years
Kouroshi
Kouroshi

Captain Joe is so amazing, explains things so well

Vor 2 years
victor manuel gonzalez rodriguez
victor manuel gonzalez rodriguez

i am an air traffic controller, good job with your videos, its set clear many thing even for us, and help to do a better duty

Vor 2 years
Magenta Megi
Magenta Megi

Victor, have you heard of the fuel emergency. I saw it some years ago in a ICAO document. Used for situations where pilot is aware of very low fuel and has to land and cannot make a go around.

Vor year
JK
JK

As an aviation SEP trainer I must say I love this channel. Great content Captain Joe 👌🏻

Vor 10 Monate
Devin S
Devin S

❤️

Vor 17 Tage
Captain Joe
Captain Joe

Hey guys! Sorry for the slight delay, pilots deal with delays nearly every day ;) And no this is not the future background of my videos ;) I had to improvise a little bit. Next week back in grey ;)

Vor 3 years
Gregor7008
Gregor7008

We need differences between the video. Something we have to think about. Don't think that's a problem!

Vor 2 years
IamAcat
IamAcat

what is the background music

Vor 2 years
Ethan Griffeth
Ethan Griffeth

@Davi Epstein it's not. It's 1440

Vor 2 years
Charliegamer413 SCR Trainspotting-And More
Charliegamer413 SCR Trainspotting-And More

In two weeks ago it's nearly do

Vor 2 years
Charliegamer413 SCR Trainspotting-And More
Charliegamer413 SCR Trainspotting-And More

Mayday

Vor 2 years
Holly Lanagan
Holly Lanagan

What a great channel. Have always loved flying and after watching a bunch of Air Crash Investigation recently it’s sparked my enthusiasm and curiosity. It’s fantastic to be able to learn from an actual pilot the who, what, why, how etc. Wonder if there’s an air traffic controller equivalent? 🤔

Vor 4 Monate
GregInTheCape
GregInTheCape

As an international 767 Captain, this is a great explanation! Well done!

Vor 2 years
Science lover Alson
Science lover Alson

7

Vor 2 years
Science lover Alson
Science lover Alson

6

Vor 2 years
F H The Jay
F H The Jay

Got flying lessons for my 65th birthday and retirement.....always loved flying but have had life dedicated to music.....loving every minute of my trainng in a Cessna 152, and learning so much. Thank you for your wonderful videos that are so informative and clear....really helping me towards my lessons....and hopefully, eventually my license! Many thanks again!

Vor 2 years
みやこ
みやこ

Hello! I watched this video from Japan. I understood easily why does pilot use Mayday. Recently I have interested in aircrafts so I serched many videos about it. And I found your video. Your video is so simple. So I could watch all parts of your video. I

Vor 2 years
Torrath7411
Torrath7411

Great Job Captain. One of the most professional looking and informative videos I've seen in a long time.

Vor year
cece richards
cece richards

Love listening to your explanations - and listening to your buddy Kennedy Steve … thanks! Getting ready for flight to Europe .. and when I worry about stuff that can go wrong, the calm professionalism of all involved - pilots, ground, tower, tugs, etc., I worry less … [especially knowing it is generally more dangerous driving to/from the airport than the flights themselves!] … Now, if I can actually make the 49 minute connection from my incoming flt to Atlanta to my outgoing flt to Paris [which Delta assures me is "no problem"! I look forward to a great trip and wonder flights, controlled by all you well trained guys and gals! Thanks for all you do...

Vor 2 years
TheNitroPower
TheNitroPower

I'm studying to be a military pilot and i like watching these kind of videos, thanks for sharing your knowledge with the community, appreciated it, regards

Vor 2 years
Shravan Ghunowa
Shravan Ghunowa

Captain Joe.. I have one question .. Have you ever been in any plane incident ? If yes please make a video and an explaination on it ... And on top of all u seems to be the best pilot ever !! :)

Vor 2 years
humlakullen
humlakullen

After having flown in US airspace the last twenty years, I've actually never heard anyone using those two phrases. Mostly the pilots just say "we declare an emergency", or "we have a mechanical problem", and request vectors back to the field.

Vor 2 years
ZT Y
ZT Y

Great lecture, a professional narrative for those who never have a chance to fly a plane, like me.

Vor 3 years
Rizwan Ahmed
Rizwan Ahmed

Thanks Joe, you are equally helpful to air traffic controllers also.

Vor year
monu barve
monu barve

I used to think MayDay means both engines failed and PanPan means one engine failed. You explained both the calls very nicely in a very simple way. A great video

Vor year
Canadian Plane Spotter
Canadian Plane Spotter

Pan = get ATC's attention, mayday = get the media's attention

Vor 3 years
Max V
Max V

Lol

Vor year
Lilium Test
Lilium Test

@Ralf H Nope. If they do it for example over an empty patch of farmland it is basically okay

Vor 2 years
Ralf H
Ralf H

@Lilium Test what I mentioned is exactly the reason why the airforce even may not shoot down an aircraft full of guilty terrorists and that is what you confirm now.

Vor 2 years
Lilium Test
Lilium Test

@Ralf H Dude I know the German Air Force regulations. The reason is not because it could kill innocent people on the ground but because in Germany the state has no right to choose between innocent lives. So you cant kill one innocent person to rescue 1000 others.

Vor 2 years
Ralf H
Ralf H

@Lilium Test no, for this could kill innocent persons on the ground.

Vor 2 years
Smiling Newton
Smiling Newton

you explain so well! i love planes but i had little to no knowledge about stuff... watching your videos is helping me learn so many new things! Thanks for sharing! :)

Vor year
faris.2026
faris.2026

6:22 Now imagine being a passenger on that plane, looking out the window and seeing an engine doing that right next to you...

Vor 2 years
The Real Slim Shadow
The Real Slim Shadow

And I’d be like: yeah, I know these can fly with only one engine. (Or 2, if I was on a larger plane)

Vor 10 Monate
pmailkeey
pmailkeey

Wouldn't bother me, my car always does that.

Vor 10 Monate
Wouter Faes
Wouter Faes

i start shitting and crying like a newborn baby

Vor year
JB Brent D. Calubaquib
JB Brent D. Calubaquib

I'd rather watch it than Panic inside the cabin

Vor year
FanStalin Gibs
FanStalin Gibs

"Hmm yes it seems this one is *steam powered* "

Vor year
Carbon 12
Carbon 12

I like how the pilot maintains authority in air travel. It means they are able to think for themselves. It is a great system.

Vor year
R 28
R 28

I really like when youtuber or broadcaster says "thank you very much for your time". At the end or in beginning of video. Your Welcome Captain.

Vor 2 years
Eskil Tester
Eskil Tester

@Septem 😂 haha

Vor year
Septem
Septem

@Eskil Tester *You're *welcome Gotta follow grammar as well as spelling rules.

Vor year
Eskil Tester
Eskil Tester

*You're

Vor year
Stefan Werthmann
Stefan Werthmann

Don't forget the Lufthansa flight. "We lost an engine but no emergency" 😂

Vor 3 years
Peter Cordes
Peter Cordes

​@dpm1982 - Yes, in the US controllers are officially authorized to (and do in practice) handle the situation as an emergency, regardless of hearing magic words on the radio: https://aviation.stackexchange.com/questions/57750/can-atc-handle-a-flight-as-emergency-although-the-pilots-have-not-declared-an-em has several good and interesting answers. one pilot's answer says "I have had controllers "declare" an emergency multiple times, even when I thought I did not have an emergency." On a different aviation.SE question, a comment mentioned a story about a good controller effectively declaring an emergency on behalf of a flight after they responded "unable" to a couple simple instructions (in icing conditions). https://aviation.stackexchange.com/questions/72854/why-are-there-many-pilots-who-dont-say-mayday-mayday-mayday-to-declare-an-e#comment190422_72865 - the controller "called 5 or 6 other airplanes in quick succession cancelling descent clearances or turning them out of the way."

Vor year
Peter Cordes
Peter Cordes

​@Lazarus Long ​ - you still want to get on the ground ASAP, and don't stray far from an airport that you're near. Engines don't just fail for no reason, and often not by themselves. You have to assume that other critical systems may be about to fail, from whatever unknown root cause knocked out your engine. You might think you know why an engine failed, or why your nose gear didn't retract, but safety demands that you don't bet the plane on your guess at a diagnosis. i.e. that you don't fly toward your destination, even if it's over land. You get back on the ground. You might say "pan-pan", not mayday, if like you say it appeared to be a low-energy and contained engine failure so you don't *expect* problems with other systems. Or maybe even not even declare an emergency, but I'd guess that's rare for engine failure. After a single engine failure, even a quad-engine jet like a 747 should definitely land and make sure there isn't a fire starting, or fuel leaking, or some other problem that might soon affect other engines or other systems. This risk-averse philosophy is what makes aviation as safe as it is. Plus, you can always have a completely unrelated failure (or an aviation mistake like having to emergency climb to avoid a mountain), and you'd rather have 4 working engines to deal with it. It's extremely rare (or even unheard of) to have 2 different failures, but part of that is that planes *don't* routinely keep flying when they're not fully working. I think most of us in this comment thread already know and agree with that, but doesn't hurt to spell it out.

Vor year
Carbon 12
Carbon 12

Lufthansa's B-36 Peacemaker: ""two turning, two burning, two smoking, two choking, and two more unaccounted for. No emergency"

Vor year
Carbon 12
Carbon 12

@dpm1982 None of the calls are required, they are for clarity. saying what the problem is and a mayday call are much the same. The calls are for the benefit of ATC not a requirement- Aviate is of course the first job. ATC can call it's own emergencies, they have towers so they can see what is going on - they can chose to just info dump straight to the pilot if they wish. The universal answer for pilots to any question "It depends"

Vor year
Carbon 12
Carbon 12

@SunIRIise ATC doesn't give instructions unless invited to- it doesn't really work like that. Doesn't sound wrong from your description.

Vor year
Michael Dougfir
Michael Dougfir

This is my first viewing of any of your videos. I learned a lot, and appreciate the clarity of your instruction. I am subscribing.

Vor 3 years
Alex Kenlon
Alex Kenlon

Thank you. That makes so much sense. I was binge-watching a lot of Air Crash Investigations and other such shows. One situation, the pilot of a 747 lost his left-outboard engine (just shut down and would not restart). He called pan-pan and requested a vector to the nearest airport to his position. I had wondered since in other shows where the pilot loses an engine, they called "Mayday". In those...the plane had surging in the engine and/or a fire. That one didn't, it just conked out.

Vor 3 years
Random Bowling
Random Bowling

It depends on the type of engine failure and type of plane. Some engine failures are not as threatening as others. Also, most planes can fly with one engine working (but should land as soon as possible).

Vor 2 Tage
Carter Johnson
Carter Johnson

Hey there! I have a question: It would look like, especially in a twin, that a failed engine could cause the plane to start pulling towards the fail-side. Is this pulling significant enough to cause serious difficulty while flying?

Vor 2 years
Brooks Moses
Brooks Moses

Saw this covered on another video I was watching this evening. The answer is: Not particularly; in a modern commercial aircraft the flight systems will autocorrect for it. Though, for complicated reasons, you generally don't want to make a sharp turn toward the side with the failed engine.

Vor 10 Monate
Mike Crow
Mike Crow

I was on HMCS Vancouver (Port look out when this happened) when we received a Pan Pan from a small charter boat that was taking on water. We just dropped the pick in Port Simpson when the Pan Pan turned into a Mayday. Our CO saw we were close and just after we secured the anchor party, we called them back in. The confused look on the Master Seaman's face was funny, but I shouted down to him about the mayday and he started hollering for his lil bosuns to get the pick up again. By the way, we were able to rescue everyone.

Vor 3 years
Steve Dee
Steve Dee

Captain Joe, I’m not a pilot but years ago I use to fly with my friend who had a Cessna 174 and I loved it even when in turbulence and got thrown around but as I have got older I am getting more nervous when flying, why... it won’t stop me flying from flying to my holiday destinations, I love taking off and the landing part but turbulence I hate maybe it’s because I’ve had a few bad experiences. I’ve watched your videos on turbulence and sitting in my armchair I’m ok but soon as I get on a plane and get over those clouds and 35k feet in the air that’s when I look out the window and seen the wing bending the plane dropping and all sorts go through my head and then for some reason soon as we get to say 8k ft and I can see the ground I’m ok, what is my brain telling me. Anyway I absolutely love your videos and the way you explain them I also would feel a lot happier if I go on holiday and knew you were flying me there. haha. Thanks again Captain. 👨‍✈️ 👏

Vor 10 Monate
Peter King
Peter King

The military have another call “NODUF”, then state the emergency. It’s used to indicate that the message is real, not a training simulation. The worst one I heard was “NODUF, Sunray Tango 4 has been killed. Tank slipped from bridge”. What that meant was D squadron leader has killed.

Vor 2 years
Peter Cordes
Peter Cordes

Some random people on the Internet (https://www.arrse.co.uk/community/threads/where-do-the-words-biff-and-no-duff-come-from.68379/#post-1456074 ) say that NODUF comes from "No Direction Finding" - i.e. this is a call you're making *during* an exercise about a real, not simulated, casualty. But you want to spoil the exercise as little as possible, not having this transmission give away your position. And from there it maybe evolved into "Not Duff" (information), i.e. real, not fake. If anyone has better sources that contradict this, please let me know.

Vor year
Mr. Cub Fan 415
Mr. Cub Fan 415

Peter King RIP 😢

Vor 2 years
Chris C.
Chris C.

Its like the Dr Mike of pilots, definitely subscribing

Vor 2 years
Nicole Anderson
Nicole Anderson

I see that you're a man of culture

Vor year
bboyjunyor
bboyjunyor

Great video and keep up the good work! BTW: BA might be great when it comes to pilots but their services are awful as well as those old 747s!

Vor 3 years
bob fourjs
bob fourjs

May you never need to use them. Safe flying to you and all.

Vor 3 years
bob fourjs
bob fourjs

@Mother forker LOL now that would be a sudden loss of altitude if his head fell off.

Vor year
Mother forker
Mother forker

@bob fourjs or slice it off

Vor year
bob fourjs
bob fourjs

@Mother forker It might loose control and come back and hit you in the head!!

Vor year
Mother forker
Mother forker

its fine the only thing i fly is a quadcopter

Vor year
Gamimg with Nath
Gamimg with Nath

I hope I don't have to as I don't intend to become a pilot. Too much stress.

Vor year
Lee Mc Donald
Lee Mc Donald

I'm not a pilot, and I already knew the difference, but it was still a fantastic video. Very well done.

Vor 3 years
Tim Wood
Tim Wood

Love this - I'm a professional yacht skipper - so I recognise all of this - happily never had to make either call - but have done relays for a couple

Vor year
grease monkey
grease monkey

This is why i love aviation, it's so tightly controlled, and it feels like a living, breathing machine.

Vor 2 years
Inge Wenzel
Inge Wenzel

Wow thanks for the explanation. Just had my first 737 sim training couple of weeks ago.. i love it!:)

Vor 2 years
Roger Hargreaves
Roger Hargreaves

Hey Captain! I belong to an astronomy club, we use Lasers to point out stars to the kids. Always used responsibly, if there is an aircraft in the vicinity we turn them off. CQD was the original SOS message. Great video Captain. Inspirational! RgY! 💯👍🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿

Vor 3 years
Eldar Khaitov
Eldar Khaitov

I just wonder without any intensions to do this, but how can a man aim a laser beam at the airplane if the littlest hand shake can cause the great beam deviation due to the distance?

Vor 2 years
GeCe
GeCe

@Alex Ku Thanks!!

Vor 2 years
Alex Ku
Alex Ku

@GeCe effects like seizures due to strobing lights might become an issue, but I guess with all the medical examinations commercial pilots have to undergo, that is very highly unlikely. The problem is on the one hand, that such a laser beam is not such a narrow beam any more as you see it while pointing it at a wall in your living room. The beam gets wider and wider but remains blindingly bright. This is then made even worse that you will never find any 100 % immaculate window. So every tiny speck of dust, scratch, ice... whatever it might be, reflects this bright beam wildly into the cockpit. Most will know this effect from a dirty or scratched car windshield. Taking now also into account that this usually happens in the nighttime and the pilots are in a quite dark environment with all the lights and displays at a reduced brightness (I think Joe explained this in a different video), any bright light is even more blinding and can cause a temporary loss of eyesight. Not exactly something you can have during takeoff and landing.

Vor 3 years
GeCe
GeCe

@Alex Ku Could you please explain why lasers harm the pilots? Is it because flashing lights could trigger seizures or something like that?

Vor 3 years
Alex Ku
Alex Ku

@Steve K No, I am not, I might just be somewhat unclear about the different codes and languages. The short and long tones/signals are commonly known as Morse code. Of course there are other code tables and languages. And referring to American Morse code, I was relating only to the transcription of the SOS signal, which actually is a non character signal on its own. SOS is just a matching set of letters (without pauses) in one code.

Vor 3 years
A RandomMiniPainter
A RandomMiniPainter

Hi ! I was wondering, in the case of an unresponsive primary flight control surface (say, left aileron is no longer responding, and no redundancy has kicked in), what is the appropriate call ? "Mayday" or "Pan-pan" ?

Vor 2 years
ironslide
ironslide

I was curious what PAN PAN means... I heard this right after a 737 took off right before us during flight lesson. We had to take a different runway due to debris by the previous flight... Thanks for explaining, Captain!

Vor 2 years
ngiorgos
ngiorgos

I am an astronomy enthousiast, thus, I often shine my laser at the night sky. To point at the various stars and other celestial objects. I always knew it is dangerous to point at an airplane, but I did not know why... I could not imagine a little laser pointer damaging an airlpane. Now I see why. It's not damaging the airplane itself, it's blinding the pilots flying it! It never crossed my mind! I always try to use my laser safely, but I am going to be more cautious with passing airplanes from now on. Thank you for informing us.

Vor year
Grand Catsmama
Grand Catsmama

I've never heard of pan-pan or any of the others you mentioned. Many years ago I read in Reader's Digest about a lady who would go on flights with her husband. Well one day he had a heart attack while flying the small plane. He died instantly, the lady had to take over and fly the plane, with the help of an air traffic controller she crashed into a wooded area and was severely injured, the plane was destroyed, but for someone who had never flown before she landed that plane.

Vor 2 years
jesuswasahovercraft
jesuswasahovercraft

Hi Joe, I hope your fellow pilots are well after the incident in Kuala Lumpur. My question is: why didn’t they radio Mayday?

Vor 3 years
SGT_S4und3r5
SGT_S4und3r5

Wonderful and informative video. I had some misconceptions that you have rightly cleared up. Thank You so much.

Vor 3 years
Eduardo Hendive
Eduardo Hendive

I learned a lot from your vedeo captain joe, but for us who works on ground we have our own code during our emergency and this is PAY DAY PAY DAY thank you

Vor year
Mazi Ogunedo
Mazi Ogunedo

That's cool Joe. I'm an aviation freak and I love every topic about aviation and aircraft particularly. Thank you Joe

Vor 2 years
Barefoot0Walker
Barefoot0Walker

most informative. i was aware of the mayday call being used in an emergency, and where it came from, but i was hearing panpan on some of the videos, and was happy i found this one to explain it.

Vor year
aznbai
aznbai

Thanks for the insights you give. Very interesting for a non-aviator

Vor 3 years
LYNNE GARNER
LYNNE GARNER

Love your videos, so informative. Keep up the good work

Vor Monat
CΔRL ΛTTΞNIΞSΞ
CΔRL ΛTTΞNIΞSΞ

Absolutely fantastic video with great detail and very clear English. Thank you, Captain Joe!

Vor year
Transformed Thomas
Transformed Thomas

I love this channel! Captain Joe is a great instructor!

Vor 10 Monate
Clarence Hemeon
Clarence Hemeon

You forgot "Securite, Securite, Securite" which is used for issues involving navigational warnings, meteorological warnings, and any other warning needing to be issued that may concern safety but not be life-threatening. I was a shipborne anti-submarine air controller in the Royal Canadian Navy.

Vor 2 years
Butterflies Butterfly
Butterflies Butterfly

always have great respect to pilots now your channel just make that respect goes up to a whole new level! Thank you Captain!

Vor 2 years
matt smith
matt smith

I've been in on the flight deck when a mayday was called. We were at our alternate due to below mins weather. When we arrived our alt was also below mins. The VOR unknown to us had been moved from 5.1 miles south of the field to the start of the runway. All other airport nav aids were inop. One guy in the tower and he only spoke Spanish. We did not. After our fourth missed approach and climbing up from flying between the city's buildings with only 1.2 tons of fuel showing in our 74-2's tanks, we vectored away from the inhabited areas and declared a mayday.

Vor 2 years
Spence TheFence
Spence TheFence

Watching this video reminded me of a bird I saw when I was stationed out in lemoore California. I was out back of my division building having a smoke, talking to one of my first classes while we watched jets do touch and goes off the runway. One came in and sent sparks all over the place. First time the pilot did it me and my first class we're a little confused, then the pilot did it again and we realized his hook was down, not only did we get a fire work show, I also learned that 1- we have catch wires on every runway on that Base, and 2- those wires are used in a pan-pan situation wether it be hot-brakes or something similar. Definitely something me and the other mechs weren't expecting to see that day! Everything ended up alright and the bird made it back to the hanger after a quick tug over lol

Vor year
Rus Healy
Rus Healy

Excellent video--nice job and thanks for all the detail and great examples.

Vor 10 Monate
Sevineshan Puckree
Sevineshan Puckree

Hi Captain Joe Great video! What happens if you declare a MAYDAY but the occurrence is actually classified as PAN-PAN?

Vor 2 years
ZK-APA
ZK-APA

Sevineshan Puckree it depends on the actual situation. Because considering pilots don’t have full information initially, it’s safer to declare a mayday, and if they realise it’s not that severe, they can change it to a pan pan

Vor 2 years
Dirty Hobo
Dirty Hobo

I called a PAN, PAN, PAN many decades ago on a night flight in a Piper Cherokee from Amarillo to Pueblo CO. I did so because I didn’t feel an actual emergency existed but I was concerned because I had no distinct horizon, no ground lights, and minimal ground based navigational signal. I received an immediate response from an airborne C-130 and with their assuring advice was able to communicate with Pueblo who, in turn, later had identified me on radar and a safe landing was accomplished. Just a radio call to advise someone I may have a problem and if I had an actual more serious incident someone would have already been aware...

Vor 3 years
Ivan Bratanov
Ivan Bratanov

Great video as always! Thank you, Captain!

Vor year
Roger LaFrance
Roger LaFrance

The third emergency status less used and more common with ships is SECURITY SECURITY used to assist, relay or provide emergency information by taking control of the frequency. Something not needed under positive air control.

Vor 2 years
Josua Erwin
Josua Erwin

Great video. Thanks Joe. It helps for my line training

Vor 2 years
Gautam Sharma
Gautam Sharma

Lovely video. Just a curious question. What medical issues can be caused by a laser strike on a pilot?

Vor 10 Monate
Don'tSpikeMyDrink
Don'tSpikeMyDrink

..... eh blindness???

Vor 9 Monate
Jason Mizuno
Jason Mizuno

Captain Joe, VASAviation, H89SA, and Kennedy Steve, all on the same video, how can you go wrong?

Vor 3 years
zephanish
zephanish

And they say infinity war is the most ambitious crossover event in history

Vor 3 years
kaluahmon
kaluahmon

Jason Mizuno My sentiments exactly. I got progressively giddier as I noticed each one!

Vor 3 years
Emma Herron
Emma Herron

I literally came here from Air crash Investigation because I was watching the Qantas 32 one and the engine failed and I wondered why the pilot said ‘Pan, Pan’ and not ‘Mayday’. Great episode btw. I kinda like it because there are no deaths in that accident and I don’t feel bad for getting entertainment out of another’s misfortune.

Vor 2 years
EddyAlex2009
EddyAlex2009

Hi Joe, thanks a lot for this video. I am an ATC manager from Russia. Whenever an ATCO gets mayday report s/he starts asking the reason for mayday, intentions, number on board and things. This is according to regulations but pilots say let us 3-4 minutes to understand the situtaion and then we will report. However no doc states that ATC should give pilot these 3-4 minutes and ATCOs start asking right after the mayday report. What can you say on that?

Vor 2 years
Bradley Ross
Bradley Ross

I can only speak to procedures for radio communications in civil emergencies and disasters. I remember a priority list: messages from emergency personnel in area related to emergency, messages related to emergency from other emergency personnel outside area to emergency personnel in area, messages from people stating well-being or similar to outside area (it was assumed that person receiving communications would pass it to other relatives), and other communications into area was way down the list. There was a passenger train derailment and some reporters were complaining that they weren't being allowed to people on the train. I remember thinking what a violation that was of procedures. If I was the pilot, I would probably give short messages as I was doing things and let them know when I was able to talk. If you're the manager and I was the pilot, I would greatly appreciate "Let me know if I can help and when you can talk". I would also appreciate "Get off the frequency" to other busybodies. Also, when he says 3-4 minutes, he will probably be responding in less time than that.

Vor 2 years
Leandro Ribeiro
Leandro Ribeiro

Hey Captain Joe, how’s it going? I’m brazilian pilot, working in a brazilian major, and I’m studying for my next ICAO english exam, and I have a question. Can I use “declaring an emergency” instead of MAY DAY in my test?

Vor year
ZK-APA
ZK-APA

Leandro Ribeiro I'm not sure if there's an official answer to that, but as far as with my experience, saying mayday is the correct way to declare an emergency, rather than saying "declaring an emergency"

Vor year
The Cheaterman
The Cheaterman

So the way I understand it, the pilot needs to have a very good gut feeling of whether the PAN-PAN can develop into a potential life/flight-threatening emergency?

Vor 2 years
KubeckDK
KubeckDK

Really excellent radio examples you gave there!

Vor 3 years
spookq
spookq

So my buddy was flying out of Phoenix, and the plane ended up having a cabin pressurization fault, and it went unnoticed until they got to around 15000' by which point the pilot noticed his ears popping really bad, and my friend was also in a bit of pain, babies were crying, and so the pilot makes the announcement of them having to turn back and return to the Phoenix Airport. Then they were stuck in Phoenix for 6 hrs while they were fixing the problem.

Vor 2 years
CH UD
CH UD

Excellente vidéo et très bonnes explications. Merci

Vor 2 years
Laura Sinkins
Laura Sinkins

I worked for 911 ambulance division as a dispatcher back in the 90s. We also had these codes in addition to our 10-codes. I noticed your comment about your buddy and thought back to the sense of kinship we would feel from hearing the same voices all the time. Most paramedics wanted to visit us to put a face to the voice. We liked that. I'm wondering if pilots feel the same way about their air traffic controllers.

Vor year
Max James
Max James

Hey Captain Joe, hope this isn't too much of a personal question. Have you been in any intense situations whilst flying?

Vor year
Louise Quo Vadis
Louise Quo Vadis

I love your videos, Joe. I learned so much.

Vor 2 years
James Judge
James Judge

As seamen, we call Mayday to the USCG anytime we either have an on-vessel injury we cannot handle onboard, or "there are people in danger we cannot assist."

Vor 10 Monate
Brian Howard
Brian Howard

Other International radio communication may be "Securite, Securite" not used in aviation that I know of, but common among maritime traffic, just in case you hear it listening to your guard frequency.

Vor year
Waltz Away Dreaming
Waltz Away Dreaming

If I remember correctly, SR111 transmitted “PAN,PAN,PAN smoke in the cockpit”. I know it would not have made a difference in the end, but would MAYDAY have been more appropriate?

Vor 2 years
John Oke
John Oke

I live under an approach route for Toronto-Pearson(YYZ/CYYZ) and Toronto-City(YTZ/CYTZ) I have seen a few incidents of lasers pointing at planes including one incident at a local park being with a laser being pointed at a Air Canada 787 and a BA 777 both at about 7500ft as well as a Porter Q400 at 3500ft

Vor year
Luke Ford
Luke Ford

Captain, can you please do a video on what happens when a pilot needs to call a tower after an accident/incident. What is usually said between tower & pilot and what happens next?.

Vor year
Andrew Miller
Andrew Miller

I would have thought with the 747 in the first example as 1 of 4 engines was shut down it would have been a PAN PAN not Mayday. As it was likely controllable but should be returned to the airport.

Vor 2 years
ken bosco
ken bosco

Outstanding video, this website is a treasure chest of aviation information. Thanks for making this.

Vor year
Glen M. Danielsen
Glen M. Danielsen

Capt. Joe is endlessly interesting, articulate, and cool!!

Vor 2 years
Gabs Staxkill
Gabs Staxkill

Well, often performed/ used improperly! And here in this video explained not correctly, especially in the first PAN PAN scenario: PAN PAN is only used as an urgency message regarding ANOTHER aircraft, vessel, vehicle but itself! PAN PAN for the own aircraft status is only used in case of an medical emergency concerning a passenger/ crew member on board the transmitting aircraft. Pilots use PAN PAN when they think that emerged issue is not of imminent danger, but that is wrong; like the Air Maroc: that is clearly a "Mayday". Please check ICAO Annex 10 Vol 2 Chapter 4.4.1.1.2

Vor 2 years
TaylorGH1823
TaylorGH1823

I love videos like this! I love having examples

Vor 2 years
يوسف الجهوري Suzuki
يوسف الجهوري Suzuki

Useful information ....clear and easy to understand. Thanks alot

Vor 2 years
Pilot Gabriel
Pilot Gabriel

Who needs flight training we have Captain Joe😂

Vor 3 years
Pilot Gabriel
Pilot Gabriel

@BORNLOVE NTIKHA me too🤣

Vor 2 years
BORNLOVE NTIKHA
BORNLOVE NTIKHA

I need to be trained by cpt joe

Vor 2 years
Rightclick88
Rightclick88

Pan Pan just means there's a small oil leak and they need a pan quickly

Vor 2 years
Ken Deeks
Ken Deeks

RoyBoyApprentice - a flying pan

Vor year
Maxime MONTENOT
Maxime MONTENOT

That why I will not be a pilot. Because I can say pan pan pan, I want eggs.

Vor year
GreenTruthful
GreenTruthful

I'm gonna use my trusty frying pan... 𝐀𝐬 𝐚 𝐝𝐫𝐲𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐩𝐚𝐧.

Vor 2 years
Alok Krishna Singh
Alok Krishna Singh

Again a great explanation. Captain joe, your videos are just awesome. i love it. feeling sorry as i found your channel very late.

Vor 2 years
Turkeyinthehay
Turkeyinthehay

This was really interesting. I've always wondered what "pan-pan" meant. Thanks!

Vor 3 years
sbentjies
sbentjies

Great video and clarification. Lots of useful information

Vor 3 years
FSX737Pilot X
FSX737Pilot X

That last Delta pilot declaring an emergency was cool as ice.

Vor 3 years
Nicole A
Nicole A

The real life IceMan

Vor year
Micha Grill
Micha Grill

Na Cool as Bose-Einstein-Condensate (a view nanokelvin)

Vor 2 years
Jack Thorton
Jack Thorton

Calm, as ice, yet hot and bothered in bed.

Vor 3 years
theLoKiway447
theLoKiway447

He was so matter of fact about it... just "Yeah so Delta 1063 got an engine out from a bird strike" I could imagine afterwards him talking about going to a bar or a strip club after they land. Awesome

Vor 3 years
FSX737Pilot X
FSX737Pilot X

@Callie Masters That too

Vor 3 years
André Niemann
André Niemann

Dear Captain Joe. I really like your videos. I have one question: why aren’t there any sort of protection in front of the engines? Like some sort of netting or mesh (obviously of strong composite material). Having no protection seems like running naked in the snow hoping not to catch a cold.

Vor 2 years
MikeP
MikeP

It's not possible to install a mesh in front of the engine. It would disturb the airflow into the engine and affect to the performance of the engine.

Vor 2 years
Brian Curtis
Brian Curtis

I found it interesting that Fredrick Mockford, Senior Air Traffic Contoller @ Croydon Airport came up with "Mayday, Mayday, Mayday" supposedly from French "M'aidez" = "Help me" - HOWEVER coming from Croydon he would also be very aware that there is a Mayday Road, and more importantly a very large hospital on that road MAYDAY HOSPITAL, which incidentally had a large "Casualty Dept" where any casualties in accidents at Croydon Airport would almost certainly be sent! Just a thought!!!

Vor 10 Monate

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