Math Has a Fatal Flaw

  • Am Vor 2 Monate

    VeritasiumVeritasium

    Not everything that is true can be proven. This discovery transformed infinity, changed the course of a world war and led to the modern computer. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

    Special thanks to Prof. Asaf Karagila for consultation on set theory and specific rewrites, to Prof. Alex Kontorovich for reviews of earlier drafts, Prof. Toby ‘Qubit’ Cubitt for the help with the spectral gap, to Henry Reich for the helpful feedback and comments on the video.

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    References:

    Dunham, W. (2013, July). A Note on the Origin of the Twin Prime Conjecture. In Notices of the International Congress of Chinese Mathematicians (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 63-65). International Press of Boston. - ve42.co/Dunham2013

    Conway, J. (1970). The game of life. Scientific American, 223(4), 4. - ve42.co/Conway1970

    Churchill, A., Biderman, S., Herrick, A. (2019). Magic: The Gathering is Turing Complete. ArXiv. - ve42.co/Churchill2019

    Gaifman, H. (2006). Naming and Diagonalization, from Cantor to Godel to Kleene. Logic Journal of the IGPL, 14(5), 709-728. - ve42.co/Gaifman2006

    Lénárt, I. (2010). Gauss, Bolyai, Lobachevsky-in General Education?(Hyperbolic Geometry as Part of the Mathematics Curriculum). In Proceedings of Bridges 2010: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Culture (pp. 223-230). Tessellations Publishing. - ve42.co/Lnrt2010

    Attribution of Poincare’s quote, The Mathematical Intelligencer, vol. 13, no. 1, Winter 1991. - ve42.co/Poincare

    Irvine, A. D., \u0026 Deutsch, H. (1995). Russell’s paradox. - ve42.co/Irvine1995

    Gödel, K. (1992). On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems. Courier Corporation. - ve42.co/Godel1931

    Russell, B., \u0026 Whitehead, A. (1973). Principia Mathematica [PM], vol I, 1910, vol. II, 1912, vol III, 1913, vol. I, 1925, vol II \u0026 III, 1927, Paperback Edition to* 56. Cambridge UP. - ve42.co/Russel1910

    Gödel, K. (1986). Kurt Gödel: Collected Works: Volume I: Publications 1929-1936 (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press, USA. - ve42.co/Godel1986

    Cubitt, T. S., Perez-Garcia, D., \u0026 Wolf, M. M. (2015). Undecidability of the spectral gap. Nature, 528(7581), 207-211. - ve42.co/Cubitt2015

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    Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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    Written by Derek Muller, Adam Becker and Jonny Hyman
    Animation by Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek, Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman
    Math City Animation by Another Angle 3D Visuals (www.anotherangle.ee)
    Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno
    Edited by Derek Muller
    Music and SFX by Jonny Hyman Additional Music from Epidemic Sound
    Additional video supplied by Getty Images
    Thumbnail by Geoff Barrett
    Associate Producers: Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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Jasper Rosa
Jasper Rosa

You realized math doesn't make sense. A realization we've all made

Vor Stunde
Lord Trollalot
Lord Trollalot

Godel: "ill finish quick this h+ code, then i eat something... "

Vor 3 Stunden
ubaldo de badajoz
ubaldo de badajoz

Self-referent statement: "X is not X". What wisdom, so appropriate for the year 2020 (which equals the year 1984 of Orwell).

Vor 3 Stunden
Black Bird
Black Bird

6:30 im not convinced we couldn't find the same number anywhere on the list, can someone explain me please?

Vor 4 Stunden
Black Bird
Black Bird

@Релёкс84 ah thanks if it's simply defined as such then yeah sure

Vor 4 Stunden
Релёкс84
Релёкс84

It is defined as being different from every number on the list. So if it ever were on the list, it would be different from itself, which is quite impossible.

Vor 4 Stunden
M V
M V

6:36 Why does the proof concludes this as you will also get an index for this new number?

Vor 5 Stunden
talenttrading
talenttrading

Hilbert is wrong.

Vor 6 Stunden
David
David

my brain hurts

Vor 7 Stunden
adkr grc
adkr grc

no jocking the fatal flaw is that humans invented math, so stupid to believe that the universe all of the sudden after billions of years will just follow those rules.

Vor 9 Stunden
Anton Hanzelik
Anton Hanzelik

thank you well, much obliged

Vor 10 Stunden
Прохор Шляхтун
Прохор Шляхтун

8:00 "informal leader of the formalists" — sounds funny

Vor 10 Stunden
Necrotic Uterus
Necrotic Uterus

who wants to be a next gen parasite ?

Vor 10 Stunden
VERICHO
VERICHO

But if an axiom is unprovable, then how can we know that it is true???

Vor 11 Stunden
JCGoogle
JCGoogle

The fatal flaw of this "Math Has Fatal Flaw" video is math only has a fatal flaw when you put fatally flawed restrictions on it. For example - the barber at 9:35. The paradox comes from the set of fatally flawed rules. Why must the law say the barber can't shave himself? Most of the range in which these kinds of questions are being asked is beyond where it provides practical usage. For example Newtonian physics works within a certain range and then at some point General Relativity has to be used. Or you can make up a problem that is not answerable,.. such as,.. "Which came first the chicken or the egg?" or more specifically "which came first, the chicken or the chicken egg?" The question has a fatal flaw that restricts the answer to only two possible outcomes,... when neither is true. On an evolutionary scale, the egg obviously came before the chicken. But regarding the chicken and the chicken egg question,... the answer is they both came at the same time. The chicken evolved with the chicken egg simultaneously. This kind of metaphorically proves that if something proves to be unprovable, we just may be using the wrong tools to prove it or asking a fatally flawed question.

Vor 12 Stunden
Amine Amine
Amine Amine

Maybe contradictions are true 🤔

Vor 12 Stunden
László Tungli
László Tungli

Next possibility: Does not exists such a g. Proove: g contains g, it means, that g must be more complicatued than g. It is'nt true. Indirect proove.

Vor 13 Stunden
Beldan4
Beldan4

and this is why people take such comfort in systems of faith. Even within the video itself, if people couldn't have faith (faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen) that one day the hole would be filled, they would go crazy thinking existence shouldn't be possible.

Vor 14 Stunden
Tamás Hercz
Tamás Hercz

So Math itself is infinite. And Math's infinity could be only proven by Math itself. So Math's biggest flaw is itself being a Self Reference Paradox.

Vor 14 Stunden
Eleanor Lim
Eleanor Lim

i come here when i'd like to get a migraine

Vor 15 Stunden
Yankosh Badal
Yankosh Badal

The statement below 👇 is false The statement above ☝️ is true

Vor 15 Stunden
Golden Eagle Arbor
Golden Eagle Arbor

Sounds like a lot of these guys could of had better lives if they hadn't of taken "show your work" a little to seriously

Vor 16 Stunden
Hamoudi
Hamoudi

"Not all infinities are the same size" 😂😂 Size means that something is finite and has dimensions to it. This statement is so wrong in itself!

Vor 17 Stunden
Hamoudi
Hamoudi

In an infinite row of numbers, you cannot know for certain that the new number you created will not appear, how in the world one could prove of disapprove this? Nobody could write down an infinite list to begin with.

Vor 17 Stunden
John Counts
John Counts

Or there’s a third alternative to the goodle number g It’s not a number, thus it doesn’t prove anything at all other than that this guy was a tad off his rocker

Vor 17 Stunden
John Counts
John Counts

But………….if the index were made with the real numbers instead then you could make the same statement in reverse…….

Vor 17 Stunden
Astig Astig
Astig Astig

Hello, veritasium. So if 'trueness' and 'provability' are seperate, then: (While A= a statement) A can be true but can be unprovable A can be true and provable A can be false but unprovable A can be false but provable So if the statement with godel code 'g' is false, could it be that it's not a contradiction? Since if that statement is false, then it means that proving is true. Proving it as false means it's guaranteed that it's false, and there's no contradiction. Proving is proven to be true. Can anyone share some insights pls

Vor 18 Stunden
Eli C
Eli C

wait what did you use to play the game of life like that? or is it all just animation?

Vor 18 Stunden
Crypt0tagz
Crypt0tagz

Cool but ........ what???

Vor 20 Stunden
HLQA
HLQA

Godel's parents were cousins?

Vor 20 Stunden
YordanYoshi
YordanYoshi

Seeing the game of life run itself honestly amazed me

Vor 22 Stunden
유리 큐브 제왕Lord of the Glass Cube
유리 큐브 제왕Lord of the Glass Cube

God: "hehe, I remember when I was in pre-school"

Vor 22 Stunden
maruftim
maruftim

Prinkipia or prinsipia..?

Vor 22 Stunden
Nathan5791
Nathan5791

Hilbert - I'm gonna probably win a nobel price for this... Godel - Hold my beer while I wreck this guy's whole career!

Vor 23 Stunden
Darren A
Darren A

How the hell are there over 6K dislikes of this video? What morons.

Vor Tag
Lelsewhere Lelsewhere
Lelsewhere Lelsewhere

The whole Turing punishment is very misunderstood. Like, imagine if a person created a device that could do the 1940s equivalent of cracking nuclear launch codes. Now imagine that person keeps getting drunk, keeps picking up (very socially unacceptable) prostitutes, is continually arrested for causing disturbances with these prostitutes, and continually bailed out by his friends in government. Do you think this person can keep the device or its workings secret? Do you think that such a person could be blackmailed into giving his secret device up? Do you think this person's role in the device could be found out, and that could then be manipulated or kidnapped and forced to work with "the enemy"? That's almost literally the situation. I mean, if he just chose to live a quiet (though yes, somewhat secret and discrete) life with one gay lover, I'm 99% certain the government would have looked the other way, as they usually did with important men who were gay, even back then. Or do you think that there were no important, secretly gay (but known to the higher ups) men ever in Britain before the 1990s...

Vor Tag
Joao Caetano
Joao Caetano

Very good video. Good work. When I was in basic school I wasn't very good. In secondary school I realised that some subject could actually help me understand, improve and do the tasks of the most ordinary routines of live. By "college" I notice that I was pretty much surrounded by knowledge and everything around me was almost cared for a different subject. Math's there too. But then a teacher had a sort of a public discussion about life and death and for a few days I had my brain wrap and immersed in all the knowledge I have learned so far. Unsurprisingly I came to the conclusion that every subject has its own development but as close that you get to the edge of it's circle the more that knowledge gets more and more mixed with the circule that is next to it. I think that this video is all about that as well. Is about the filosophy of maths. A sort of grey area between maths and filosophy. Or perhaps other subject. I always been convinced that is an area development by the best of maths but also by the ones more unsettled with the 1+1 is 2 who seek arguments in different subjects is order to support their ideas using their knowledge from another subject. It will certainly leave me unsettled for a few days.

Vor Tag
Brother Malachai
Brother Malachai

The thing is, if our math is so incomplete and flawed, how do any of our modern equipment work...at all? Since it's so dependent on accurate mathematics?

Vor Tag
Origami Master
Origami Master

It's more of that it was shown that there is no fundamental system of mathematics which can be complete or decidable and completeness is not provable. So, it's not that every computation in mathematics is wrong just that there are some statements that are unprovably true and that not every problem is actually solvable. It could be proven that it is not (such as the twin primes conjecture). Tbh this is what I understood from the video I could be misinterpreting.

Vor 18 Stunden
Matt C
Matt C

Can someone please explain to me again the part when Derek says that proving the g card makes no proof? I understood everything else but i keep watching this statement and I can't seem to get it

Vor Tag
Ronnie Alacre
Ronnie Alacre

9:55 is a meme.

Vor Tag
Jeremy Cheeseman
Jeremy Cheeseman

Isn't the diagonalization proof wrong? It seems that in order for it to work you must get to the end of an infinitely long list, which can't happen since it is infinite in length, right?

Vor Tag
Mama Di
Mama Di

I need to say: this video makes me cry. About math, but so touching and personal at the same time. Thanks for that.

Vor Tag
Reprint001
Reprint001

"This... is the game of life. Running... on the game of life." My response. "F..k". I don't know why that was my response.

Vor Tag
Truth Holder
Truth Holder

@Veritasium, please consider doing an episode that goes through the proof of why computers use binary. In one of my college courses that was mathematics for computer science majors, we had to go through that proof. The number that came out was the natural logarithm e (2.71828). The following class when we went over the assignment those of use who came up with e (and were also confused as to how you can have a computer system that is BASE e) got our answer. He explained that e was correct, but would be impossible to physically do that. So he rounded both up and down. Hence, BASE 2 and 3 were both good number bases for computers. Few people know this because we also think of computers as using 1s and 0s, or electronically positive voltage or zero voltage (usually +5v and 0v). But there have also been tertiary chips using +1, 0 and -1. (negative voltage, 0v and a positive voltage) Thus, both are equally efficient but the industry rapidly settled on binary.

Vor Tag
Maynard Hahn
Maynard Hahn

That does not make sense

Vor Tag
Truth Holder
Truth Holder

When I was in a computer class back before PCs, we had to write a game of life program in FORTRAN. There's much truth out there that can't be proven by the means we know now. That's the beauty of truth. Someday we'll learn the proof, but for now, we're just not there. It's also the beauty of live (as in real life) itself. :) Also, my first degree was in mathematics. In one of my classes we had to show examples where x divided by 0 is undefined. So many people think it is infinity, but that's not always the case. I sure wish I would have saved that paper. But, after many decades, all that stuff is somewhere in a landfill.

Vor Tag
Nimish Shukla
Nimish Shukla

Those who know how much wealth they have in bank should not stay here too long or else they might not have any brains left after trying to make sense of this maths-match here.

Vor Tag
Hiten Doshi
Hiten Doshi

I didn't quite understand Bertrand Russell's argument about R - why if it does not contain itself then it must contain itself, and vice-versa. Can anyone explain the logic? Thanks.

Vor Tag
GriZz gamer
GriZz gamer

I love this guy's videos.

Vor Tag
Yakubu Mshelia
Yakubu Mshelia

I stopped understanding this video at 14:00 😂🤣

Vor Tag
Ol' Smokey
Ol' Smokey

Math doesn't factor in chaos and consciousness probably because it can't and reality has shown time and time again to contain both.

Vor Tag
First Name Last Name
First Name Last Name

How the hell did anyone come up with this and actually understand it. It’s so fascinating but I don’t understand it lol

Vor Tag
Blue Paint
Blue Paint

press f for the barber

Vor Tag
LunDruid
LunDruid

Whenever I hear about this kind of thing, it really makes me wonder if part of the problem is that our current understanding and use of mathematics is fundamentally flawed even right down to arithmetic. But then I realize how impossible it would probably be to come up with some system of math that didn't work with arithmetic as a base, and my head ends up hurting.

Vor Tag
thefran901
thefran901

Hilbert: "Math is complete." Gödel: "Well actually..." Hilbert: "Ok, fair enough, but math must be consistent." Gödel: "Ackchyually..." Hilbert: "Oh for fuck's sake, but it has to be at least decidable!" Turing: "LOL"

Vor Tag
Thefreakofthehill
Thefreakofthehill

As a object oriented programmer used to deal with composite objects that has references of itself, the R set blow my mind

Vor Tag
Kshitiz Gupta
Kshitiz Gupta

Man I have seen this thrice now

Vor Tag
Priyanshu Goel
Priyanshu Goel

This self referencing is the cause of me not understanding flipflops.

Vor Tag
Umang Ravaiya
Umang Ravaiya

29:56 which music is this??

Vor Tag
kerry mackey
kerry mackey

The secretive invoice optimally taste because milk lately carry unto a shocking dock. beneficial, soft retailer

Vor Tag
Andrew
Andrew

Language is not a math! Car can be different pronounce and some people thinking about car call it a motor :-)

Vor 2 Tage
36nibs
36nibs

How fortunate is it that you can apply these mathematical principles to other systems

Vor 2 Tage
BonnetBee
BonnetBee

A potentially stupid question: Why would you bother to create H+? Why wouldn’t you just create H and call it a day? And would the answer still be the same if you did? 🤔

Vor 2 Tage
Nature
Nature

Why do people assume they need to count every vain of each leaf on a tree to know it's a tree? If red or green round things grow off twiggs attached to branches, it's a red or green "Apple" "tree". You do not have to count how many apples have worm holes to know it's an Apple tree, and worms like Apple too.

Vor 2 Tage
Loruo Ditlhong
Loruo Ditlhong

Lol just found the meaning of consciousness

Vor 2 Tage
Gerardo Contreras
Gerardo Contreras

I swear he makes this sound so simple but at the same time my brain cannot comprehend anything he is saying

Vor 2 Tage
BBucky98
BBucky98

Me too the card part is too much

Vor 2 Tage
Scots Diesel
Scots Diesel

So sad about Alan Turing...❤️

Vor 2 Tage
mohamed mada
mohamed mada

Okay, that's the same explanation for the hotel with infinite numbers, My question is what if Cantor's"Diagonalization proof" is Wrong? What if in the set of infinite numbers there are infinite numbers with all the infinite possibilities of the diagonalization proof? I mean what if there are indeed numbers that are greater (and less) than the numbers in all indexes of all numbers with all different possibilities (antidiagonal)? Given the nature of infinity, this is a legit question. P.S I'm not trolling, I truly need an answer.

Vor 2 Tage
Moyprod
Moyprod

@mohamed mada Not, it is not the same as Hilberts hotel. There you have only 1 infinity. The infinity of natural/rational/integer numbers. In Cantors diagonalization argument occur 2 infinities. One is bigger.

Vor 2 Tage
Andre
Andre

@mohamed mada _"You didn't quite capture the essence of my question,"_ I did: Cantor was not wrong. _"I didn't say that there could be a number greater than another number in one set "_ You said: "I mean what if there are indeed numbers that are greater (and less) than the numbers in all indexes of all numbers"- There are the natural numbers. Those DEFINE the term "countable". It doesn't matter if there are other numbers. There are of course. The rational numbers for example. But those are not really more. And there are the real numbers. Those are "more". So we are already talking about this. _"My question simply is what if such a number already exists"_ There exists no such number. A number is not a set. And there is no natural number "greater than all natural numbers". _"and our list which contains infinite numbers having infinite possibilities?"_ All possibilities do not contain all real numbers in [0,1] as the proof has shown.

Vor 2 Tage
mohamed mada
mohamed mada

@Andre You didn't quite capture the essence of my question, I didn't say that there could be a number greater than another number in one set even though in an infinite set of numbers that could easily happen, I mean since the diagonalization proof says that in the list a different number would be created changing the index of each number increasing it by one ergo it won't belong to our list. My question simply is what if such a number already exists and our list which contains infinite numbers having infinite possibilities?

Vor 2 Tage
Andre
Andre

_"My question is what if Cantor's"Diagonalization proof" is Wrong?"_ It is not. Next question. _"what if there are indeed numbers that are greater (and less) than the numbers in all indexes of all numbers with all different possibilities "_ A number cannot be greater than all numbers. This is trivial to prove. _"Given the nature of infinity, this is a legit question."_ No, it is not.

Vor 2 Tage
johnnytheprick
johnnytheprick

I couldn't agree more, it's convoluted, isn't taught in ways most understand, and it doesn't olve man's greatest problem: stupidity.

Vor 2 Tage
Alex Huggett
Alex Huggett

This is so much better explained than everything else that it's the only one that actually says the problem how it is

Vor 2 Tage
Justin Hamlin
Justin Hamlin

♾️

Vor 2 Tage
Adhithyan Sreedharanarayanan
Adhithyan Sreedharanarayanan

I have a Doubt Derek. If the Machine h has to produce some kind of output, It has to first run a code and an input for which the sequence of the output may or may not terminate. Then the machine h+ comes into play, Which implies that the sequence of the program and the input which was already coming is inverted completely which follows a loop around the machines h and h+ and I don't see why this creates a contradiction(like if the machine h gives out the output that the first inserted program and input produces a sequence that terminates. Then the not gate put inside h+ reverses the sequence and terminates it which in turn produces a inverted loop. In which the steps of procedure are inverted with respect to the steps mentioned before.)Which implies that the machine h when working in conjecture with the machine h+ never produces a stable output when it is fed with h+'s program code and the recurring input. Then I don't see why they simply assume that the machine h is impossible to make.

Vor 2 Tage
Adhithyan Sreedharanarayanan
Adhithyan Sreedharanarayanan

This can go in either one of two ways. 1) Either I am Stupid.2)Or You are a Genius to Understand this.

Vor 2 Tage
𝕲𝖆𝖇𝖗𝖎𝖊𝖑
𝕲𝖆𝖇𝖗𝖎𝖊𝖑

We are immortal until the day we die

Vor 2 Tage
Rex Dalit
Rex Dalit

One issue here is that any "solution" for Russell's Paradox is probably translatable to a homologous "solution" for Godel's Incompleteness Theorem. My understanding is that there have been at least 3 PhDs generated in the last 100 years purporting to "solve" Russell's Paradox, in 3 different ways. Thus one (I) would expect that there are at least 3 corrective counter-theorems to Godel's Incompleteness Theorem. Hilbert might, and probably would, content himself with these, since if memory serves, these are more or less formal ways of encapsulating and manipulating Russell's Paradox. [Note that I would conjecture that homotopy theory implies there exits an (uncountable) infinity of such solutions to Russell, translatable to an infinity of solutions to Godel incompleteness. Cheer up, dead Hilbert, no need to twist in your mathematical grave; your glorious formal headstone still marks your intellectual location for would-be visitors.]

Vor 2 Tage
One Issue Voter
One Issue Voter

The problem with infinities is a problem of the human brain, not of mathematics. Consider : humans cannot truly understand what infinity is because our brains are finite. Stop considering infinity as a static object, and think about them more as multi-dimensional like space-time. The set of real numbers is infinite, as is the set of integers, but the real number set "grows" faster than integers. So they are both infinite but not the same size at the same point in some (newly defined) dimension.

Vor 2 Tage
TravelBig
TravelBig

5:47. I think if we can get this new real number then we didn't actually write all the real numbers in the first step (we wrote all the real numbers minus one).

Vor 2 Tage
Andre
Andre

_" then we didn't actually write all the real numbers in the first step (we wrote all the real numbers minus one)."_ And that is the reason why it is not possible and therefore there are more real numbers than natural numbers.

Vor 2 Tage
flow_mang
flow_mang

Turing was essentially killed for being gay. Lot's of wonder and beauty presented in this video balanced with some dark stuff.

Vor 2 Tage
Jayden Maree
Jayden Maree

I love how much I hate this, but I also hate how much I love this.

Vor 2 Tage
Grant Currin
Grant Currin

4:06 I wonder how to search through all the comments and find out why a set of nothing is inside the set of everything?! >search:?

Vor 2 Tage
TerrorHuhn
TerrorHuhn

i'm new here.. why the heck are you explaining math in the middle of nowhere? :D

Vor 2 Tage
Sasa Radetic
Sasa Radetic

That is why man as a part of creation, will never be the creator god of everything.

Vor 2 Tage
Willie Theron
Willie Theron

Many here: This is complicated, Me, halfway in, oh, that guy was wrong, 6 hours later I disproved the statement. Pushing a video about it this weekend, will edit it in here. Im a programmer, not a mathematition. but I find myself baffled that nobody could write the counter hypothesis. It seems so basic, yet, nobody could see it. Anyways, I will link my counter hypothesis here in a day or two, Seems like a great first video.

Vor 2 Tage
Andre
Andre

_"Me, halfway in, oh, that guy was wrong, 6 hours later I disproved the statement. "_ Then you made a mistake. Because all of this is well known and proven.

Vor 2 Tage
Eddie RUKidding
Eddie RUKidding

Great posting Maths has many inconsistencies, even 0 to the power of 0 is not complete, mathematics as we have derived it is not a complete system Incidentally Tuning, although how great he was did not invent the computing used at Bletchley Park (that was Tommy Flowers for Colossus and Max Newman for the earlier "Heath Robinson") and the digital computer inventor was John Vincent Atanasoff in the 1930's.

Vor 2 Tage
Andre
Andre

_"even 0 to the power of 0 is not complete,"_ That is no "inconsistency". _"Maths has many inconsistencies,"_ Can you show a single one? Until now nobody has found one - and if there is one, it would be a nightmare.

Vor 2 Tage
Irfan Kanth
Irfan Kanth

One plus one is one ... Does that make sense ??

Vor 2 Tage
Irfan Kanth
Irfan Kanth

Is there any difference in mathematics and Russian as a language !!

Vor 2 Tage
Chase Thompson
Chase Thompson

26:40 so if it gives the wrong answer each time just make it pick the opposite of the outcome

Vor 2 Tage
Christopher Suiter
Christopher Suiter

Just sharing my thoughts. I am not a mathematician and I don't consider myself a scientist. I am just a thinker with a reasonable grasp on science and math. Math is philosophical in nature, as is every other educational subject. The formulas we use and the results we get are real, but the subject itself is philosophical. We can explain how squaring "i" (referring to imaginary numbers) will produce a -1, but there is no practical way to show this in an observable way. Quantum physics often does this as well because, while the math does work on paper, there is no way to really show the process in action from start to finish. We can only show the math, the solution, and an example or depiction of it all, but we cannot show something observable in real time for every equation. For example, how worm holes work. We cannot show it in action and, despite being mathematically "possible", it is still not observable. The simple workaround to the problem of this is to accept that Math is just philosophical -- it is nothing more than a the study of how we use the "tools" of math to answer problems. And, as a tool, math is immensely important. Having said all of that, I think it's also important to accept that since we cannot understand certain concepts without math, (such as infiniti, which is actually impossible to understand without a simple definition or symbol), we must also be unable to understand other things about the universe around us. We simply lack the ability to understand everything. That's the simple reality. Because of that, the second best thing we can do is try to understand it "to the best of our ability" which is what science is for. My primary point is that we lack the ability to understand everything in the universe, therefore we may observe things to which there is no way to conceputalize, rationalize, measure, or study because we simply lack the ability to do so. Is it possible that AI could solve things that we cannot? Possibly, but we won't know until it happens. I believe the "big bang" happened at the very end of the "great ending" as the universe simply explodes, maxes out, and implodes constantly. On top of that, everything is infinitely smaller or larger. We are made up of cells, our cells are made up of atoms, atoms are made up of smaller particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons, and those are made up of smaller particles, and so on and so fourth. Everything gets smaller and smaller and a single cell may be equivalent to a "universe." Within the cell, atoms act as galaxies and electroncs act as solar systems and within those electrons there are particals that act as stars and so on and so fourth. Everything is infinitely smaller but we cannot observe it. And our entire universe may be equivalent to the atom of another reality. When we destroy an atom, we effectively destroy a universe... but new universes (particles) are created from it. Upon thinking about it like this, I have realized that time is very relevant but everything must also be infinitely linked as well. The only way to make it sort of make sense is to imagine that everything is connected interdimensionally. Not only that, but these connections, if we could travel them, could theoretically let us travel "through dimensions". I don't think we could ever go "back in time" as time isn't real, but we could speed up or slow down ourselves as we relate to specific places. If you traveled "down" a dimension and stayed there for 30 years, you would be 30 years older but maybe only 5 minutes had elapsed at home. You could also travel "up" a dimension and stay there for 5 minutes before going back home. Thirty years may have elapsed since you left even though you have only aged 5 minutes relatively speaking. But you cannot go "back" in time as time is just a concept and not a timeline. As such, there is no way to travel back in time and warn your family about something. You can, however, travel to a lower dimension and find a civilization of primitive people and educate them before heading back to your own dimension. That civilization may only take days (relative to you) before they have evolved into smarter beings and they can travel to your dimension (higher than theirs) and educate you now that they are the more advanced people. Then we get into the question of multiple universes. If multiple universes are real, and these run linear to our own, and all outcomes from all universes are possible as there is an infinite number of universes, then we may be able to jump through dimensions to communicate with other universes. In the end, we are, in fact, living in a simulation as is everything else. The simulation is real, but it is impossible for us to observe because we are a part of it. And to exit the simulation would require you to not exist which means you wouldn't be able to observe anything. Even traveling through dimensions or other universes is still part of this simulation. Something "above" the simulation must exist and we are absolutely unable to understand it and we never well. Even if it transcended to our simulation and educated us about the truth, we would be bound by our inability to understand it and we would be skeptical of this truth. I think the only way to ascend out of this simulation is through death.

Vor 2 Tage
MdSteel7
MdSteel7

What did I just watch? I'm totaly amazed.

Vor 2 Tage
Brendan Shimizu
Brendan Shimizu

"there is a hole at the bottom of mathematics" was a better title, in my opinion. Ive watched this start to finish many times, just because I find the discoveries so compelling and exciting. It truly feels like an exploration to the bottom of logic, much in the way that physics feels like an exploration to the bottom of reality. Really love the flow and the stylistic presentation. Been a fan for a minute, excited to see more

Vor 2 Tage
Clark Massey
Clark Massey

This is excellent.

Vor 2 Tage
Alaine Ninmah
Alaine Ninmah

I see math as a language rather than numbers and equations. And its a language that is ever 'evolving' yes evolving si the wrong word just can't think of the right word.

Vor 3 Tage
Helgali
Helgali

I'm always sad about Alan Turing when I think about him. Humanity would advance so much more if there weren't things like racism, homophobia, sexism etc etc etc. :/

Vor 3 Tage
Giovanni A
Giovanni A

I'm really into both mathematics and the office in this period 😂😂 I wouldn't have ever thought of that connection even after watching this video

Vor 3 Tage
Dane Norman
Dane Norman

1931: "On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems" - Math Scholars 2021: Math is RACIST! - Math Professors

Vor 3 Tage
Snarckys
Snarckys

you are intelligence and wit made man, no doubt

Vor Tag
Catchafire2000
Catchafire2000

Just absurd that because a man is gay, he was unaccepted... Although his invention helped to end the war!!!

Vor 3 Tage
Naveenmurugu KANNAN
Naveenmurugu KANNAN

U found now only but I knew it during math class itself

Vor 3 Tage
kirdiekirdie
kirdiekirdie

First time I watch this channel, the video and animation quality is top notch!

Vor 3 Tage
School of Grok
School of Grok

Sublime.

Vor 3 Tage
Sharan Pant
Sharan Pant

Can someone explain or refer me to a text explaining as to how the statement for Godel Number g is g?

Vor 3 Tage
phil longneck
phil longneck

The unadvised bowling cumulatively sprout because centimeter frustratingly nod apropos a tacit siberian. oval, murky tornado

Vor 3 Tage
Poke fun at idiots
Poke fun at idiots

There's some real smart arses commenting on this video. It proves some intelligent people do watch YouTube

Vor 3 Tage
Vedant Jagtap
Vedant Jagtap

At the end of the video u will realise that all our lives and this universe is a simulation with hyper realistic graphics and emotional ,thrilling story .

Vor 3 Tage

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