The Origins of European Imperialism

  • Am Vor year

    Johnny HarrisJohnny Harris
    subscribers: 4,4 Mio.

    How Europe Dominated the Planet
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    Ep 2 and 3: • How Europe Stole The W...
    Correction: 01:07 I characterize Europe as a “continent full of poor miserable farmers” and later go on to compare it to the “thriving” empires elsewhere. While it is indeed true that Europe in the 1400s was full of famine, plague, war, and general suffering, it’s inaccurate to say that Europeans were much worse off than people living in any other parts of the world. Especially if you look to Southern Europe where an explosion of art, science, and trade was taking place at this time. The accurate point would be to say that Europe had been relatively cut off from the world since the Ottoman Empire blocked them from historical trade routes. Europe was not deeply connected to global trade, which was mostly happening in the Indian Ocean regions at that time.
    Correction: 04:50 see the correction from 01:07
    Correction: 05:43 As noted earlier, Europeans had trade connections with the east. During this time they were cut off by the Ottoman Empire for the reasons I explain in the video
    Correction: 07:21 While Portugal had gone out trading and exploring Western Africa first, I present it as if Portugal had made it to Asia before Spain decided to start exploring. This isn’t right. Columbus’ journey west (1492) happened a few years before Portugal’s first voyage that reached India (lead by Vasco da Gama in 1497).
    Correction: 08:55 This little dramatization mischaracterizes what happened here. As many have pointed it out it feels like I’m asserting that Columbus “invented” imperialism in this moment. And indeed the way this is presented implies that. Columbus did NOT invent the idea of taking over land. In fact, a part of his contract with the royals was that he would take over any land he could while on this journey. The important point here is that Columbus set out to get in on trade in the east, but that the “discovery” of the America’s turned those efforts away from looking for new trade routes, to a full blown imperial project in the Americas. That’s the point I was trying ot make, but missed the mark in this overly dramatized moment.
    Correction: 16:02 In addition “their weapons” and “their city germs” It would have been more accurate to mention a major tool for the conquerors which was the exploitation of local politics and alliances. The conquest of these huge swaths of land required Europeans to ally with and rely on local expertise and man power to colonize these territories.
    The Library of Congress has a wonderful map collection which I used to get high res versions of a lot of these old maps. Thank you Library of Congress!
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Lucas Santos +9271
Lucas Santos

Just an addendum. When Portuguese came to Brasil, they saw an abundance of a tree along the coast which could be used to produce a bright red paint. Such plants weren't all that common in Europe, and so red paint was expensive and a sign of status. These plants were called "pau brasil", meaning "brasil wood", and "brasil" is a term that originated from French meaning "brazier". So "pau brasil" is a tree that can be used to produce something that looks like a "brazier". They were so excited that they could finally produce this expensive paint in abundance, that they named this land after the product they were after, calling it "Terra do Brasil", literally "Land of Brazil", which then was shortened to just "Brasil". This tree almost went extinct.

Vor year
Johnny Harris +1759
Johnny Harris

Wow thank you for sharing

Vor year
Alex Wendt +577
Alex Wendt

And this is also why we call ourselves "brasileiros" (with -eiro) like a profession (sapateiro = shoemaker) the first ones to be born here are to extract this wood.

Vor year
OBAID +57
OBAID

@Johnny Harris oh my god he replies

Vor year
Adrián Buenfil +83
Adrián Buenfil

@Alex Wendt Hey, you're correct, I have never noticed that. You don't say Brasiles or something like that, but Brasileiro. Interesting.

Vor year
Pedro Silva +28
Pedro Silva

Hmm doesn't Brasil means paradise land? There was places named Brasil before Brasil. Like in Azores islands.

Vor year
Ichirei Sakasama +1693
Ichirei Sakasama

Since you wholeheartedly already acknowledged and accepted that this video made huge mistakes, i believe you should make a follow-up video addressing and creating a more informative on the mistakes. It should be a responsibility for educational/history YouTuber for their audience..

Vor year
Dom +52
Dom

honestly he might as well just redo it at this point lmao

Vor year
M D +12
M D

Where did admit that he made mistakes on this video? Haven't found anything on that on his social networks.

Vor year
Ichirei Sakasama +41
Ichirei Sakasama

@M D there was another video from another history YouTuber who pointed out all the mistakes in this video. Johnny posted on that video acknowledging the mistake and that it was a wake-up call for him or something.

Vor year
Wayne Cheah +13
Wayne Cheah

@Ichirei Sakasama looks like he has since deleted that comment. I don't think he's going to change or reconsider his stance, I really hope he does.

Vor year
Arman Basurto +2004
Arman Basurto

With all due respect: this is by far the topic you have covered that I am most familiar with, and the video is so plagued by historical errors that I am starting to wonder whether the things I learnt watching other videos from your channel were as accurate as I thought they were when I watched them.

Vor year
Fadogar91 +138
Fadogar91

i feel the exact same way!

Vor year
Wulfs +132
Wulfs

my exact same thought process. made me rethink johnny's credibility

Vor year
Rod Sampson +14
Rod Sampson

Arman Basurto you are right

Vor year
Tj Lev +60
Tj Lev

Keep in mind that every country has their touch to the history they teach in schools.

Vor year
Fadogar91 +116
Fadogar91

@Tj Lev this is not about a touch... this is misinformation

Vor year
Pieter Smith +985
Pieter Smith

I love Johnny, but his commitment to virtue signaling is overpowering his commitment as an accurate story teller.

Vor year
@Regards +57
@Regards

So sad and true

Vor year
Wes +65
Wes

I loved Johnny for some time. Lately though, he seems like he doesn't even care what the truth is - only what he hopes to achieve. The ends justify the means?

Vor year
cool trades +27
cool trades

It's story, aka fiction. Historically it's complete B.S.

Vor year
Liene +28
Liene

@Wes It's starting to feel that he cares more about story telling (and all of his cool maps) and not about story itself.

Vor year
Mᴥāz Kalīm +5
Mᴥāz Kalīm

Since when is [pop-]History a natural science, anyways?

Vor year
João Polónia +67
João Polónia

0:54 "This isn't a history lesson" well at least you warned us... I hope you take all the negative response as constructive criticism, there's not much to had. You are by far my favourite journalist/documentarian in youtube. Your videos are top tier! Glad you corrected some inaccurate information in your video description. Just keep the research/fact checking on the same level as your editing and fight that urge to simplify/dumbify to make the subject more interesting (and inaccurate). And please add sources! Thank you for your work

Vor 11 Monate
DeadlyLazer +2089
DeadlyLazer

I can totally imagine Johnny having a drawer full of world maps from every era

Vor year
Acedia +50
Acedia

more like a whole basement full of them. One drawer is definitely not enough for Johnny

Vor year
last chang +4
last chang

allah hu akbar earth is flat

Vor year
Aslan Almukhambetov +8
Aslan Almukhambetov

I bet he also has a separate folder on his drive with all those maps scanned, so he can animate them in After Effects :D

Vor year
Derrek Van Ee +3
Derrek Van Ee

And a script that says "LDS will whack me if I don't say 'like' at every point with changing camera in my videos". That said I love Johnny

Vor year
Derrek Van Ee +5
Derrek Van Ee

@last chang Allah ahckbar! Dirka dirka! Muhammad jihad! Jihad jihad! Dirka dirka Muhammad jihad! Dirka dirka?

Vor year
Haatchii +833
Haatchii

Johnny, I love your work but you've really dropped the ball here on European history, this is a massive simplification and in many cases just wrong

Vor year
Del La Hoya +60
Del La Hoya

No you just don't like what is said outside your European perspective.

Vor year
enter name here +88
enter name here

@Del La Hoya he even admitted that he had a lot wrong on his own YouTube page man

Vor year
Del La Hoya +15
Del La Hoya

@enter name here what did he get wrong , just highlight a few.

Vor year
Del La Hoya +45
Del La Hoya

Lala Emm no. World history is mostly European and American History, it is all there in School textbooks, documentaries, movies everything and what not. I've read history from European perspective ,infact I've understood history from European perspective, the question is are Europeans willing to look at history from a different perspective, are you willing to look at history from the tribes that were colonized. Do you want to know what they say about colonization, land and trade? It's you who feels like you are getting dunked on, that's why the comment section is filled with overtly defensive white folks. Most of y'all just don't want to accept there were negative impacts brought about by colonization but you want the world to acknowledge only the positive impacts.

Vor year
Zak Eye +3
Zak Eye

Ya Allah I seriously have soo much love and respect for individuals like this brother, We need more genuine people like him who could educate our minds with the right information and giving us facts about the reality of the world, I soo much want this brothers voice to be heard and spread. I honestly love his personality and that sharp realistic mentality of his.

Vor 2 Monate
Big Papi +1
Big Papi

This video is incredibly mistaken. Do you not read comments? He literally apologized for how many things he got wrong. I take it you aren’t European or descended from it, so if you want to learn about it this video isn’t great

Vor Monat
Kyle Barnard +238
Kyle Barnard

This whole video seems a vehicle for Johnny to display his admittedly amazing map collection. 'Crash Course World History' and 'Crash Course European History' are better resources if you're interested in learning about history. "The truth resists simplicity" as John Green says.

Vor year
Clóvis Padilha +13
Clóvis Padilha

It's better to pick up some damn books written by proper historians instead of relying on 10 minutes long YT videos.

Vor 10 Monate
Idunnobouthat +4
Idunnobouthat

@Clóvis Padilha crash course world history was made by proper historians mate.

Vor 7 Monate
The Partisan Report +4
The Partisan Report

@Idunnobouthat "proper historians" The Green brothers? Lmao. What exactly makes them "proper historians" in your mind? Crash Course vidoes are glorified advanced high school lessons. Fluff. Kids stuff....its great for kids, there is some good stuff on there that's okay.. sound basics.. but if you really want to research history it requires multiple sources throughout the internet and beyond (gasp! libraries?!?!?!)....

Vor 7 Monate
Filip Grabowski
Filip Grabowski

This guy is a history teacher we never had

Vor 6 Tage
Joseph R Shrimpton +34
Joseph R Shrimpton

Horrible Histories managed to achieve easy to follow and entertaining history lessons that were also accurate and fairly fleshed out. That's the gold standard.

Vor year
Friederich Binet +104
Friederich Binet

how you rewrite history is almost as fun as real history

Vor 6 Monate
Jarry +3
Jarry

colonizers do it er day

Vor 3 Monate
Phil McKracken +2
Phil McKracken

@Jarry behave yourself

Vor 2 Monate
kaldera +1204
kaldera

The Europeans at the time of Columbus didn't think the earth was small (based on the visual presented). The approximate circumference of the Earth had been known since Roman times and the prospect of traveling west was considered dangerous because you'd have to travel enormous distances to reach Asia that way. Columbus purportedly believed the earth was significantly smaller than the general consensus (based on no real evidence) and therefore traveling west would be viable.

Vor year
Aeterna Victrix +20
Aeterna Victrix

No evidence made him discover new land and marked his name in history. Evidence is not everything

Vor year
N/A N/A +10
N/A N/A

Did he believe the world was smaller than measured or that Asia was larger than reportered.

Vor year
Booth +20
Booth

@N/A N/A Yep, i believe the consensus was something between 'asia is bigger than we think and/or it makes sense if some lands exist inbetween'

Vor year
Saarthel +14
Saarthel

The no evidence part is debatable as it seemed some Portuguese fishermen had already crossed the Atlantic a few times and a rumor could've been already spreading.

Vor year
AM +3
AM

@Saarthel Even the amazigh used to call it the dark sea. No one was recorded returning from their journey so only a few took the risk

Vor year
Red Horse +52
Red Horse

As what I've said before the way this guy's telling history like he is very sure about his sources. Which is sometimes really dangerous. We can all appreciate his effort but sometimes you know what when something's off we need to call somebody out.

Vor year
Matthew Walzer +234
Matthew Walzer

Many parts of this video are extremely oversimplified and lacking in context. However, one part that is simply factually incorrect is your statement on the Portuguese discovering a root to India as a motivation for the voyage of Columbus. Columbus set sail in 1492, whilst the Portuguese didn't find a route to India until Vasco da Gama's voyage in 1498.

Vor year
Potatonator +13
Potatonator

Not disagreeing with you here, you are correct about Vasco da Gama's Voyage not being the motivation. But Bartolomeu Días, another Portuguese sailor, discovered (for the Portuguese) the cape of good hope in 1488. This discovery is what eventually led to da Gama's voyage.

Vor year
Mina A. +4
Mina A.

@Potatonator Ghana had Portuguese settlers as early as 1471

Vor year
careless +3
careless

@Potatonator And Cape Bojador in 1434 (20 years before Columbus birth).

Vor year
Sang Beom
Sang Beom

Magellan also died in the Philippines. Legazpi was another explorer

Vor year
prathap s b +2
prathap s b

Well da. Coz Portuguese understood what Columbus he discovered was not India.

Vor 11 Monate
Aussie_Truth +15
Aussie_Truth

Just like to say that it's been awhile since I've come across such an engaging storyteller as yourself. I'm looking forward to many hours of watching your channel. Cheers

Vor year
C G +114
C G

Others have pointed this out, but there are some serious innaccuracies. Some things that stood out to me on first watching: -The first exploreres/conquerors weren't just "adventurous", they wanted to make money, a shitload of it. -"This isn't a history lesson, i won't talk about names and dates" as a history teacher really, really offends me. You see, history is NOT names and dates, its the big picture... -Europe was ofc not just poor farmers, or at least not more so than other parts of the world. -You show a map of europe labeling it as "the world map". Are you suggesting that Asia and Africa were not known to europeans? IF so, thats very wrong. -Europe was part of the global trade network. Most notably, the Genoese and Venetians were huge in the silk and spice trade. The exploration of new trade routes wasn't as much "Europe vs Asia" and more "new european trade powers vs old european trade powers". -Spices like black pepper were known and used in europe, its prices just fell when new routes to get the stuff were discovered. -The indigenous empires of middle and southern America had HUGE armies. However, they didn't have fire arms and more importantly, the well known axctec empire was in a big inner struggle, so it was easy to knock down. -You seem to make too much of a deal of Columbus and his "Idea" of claiming land. The Europeans had done this all over the places, even the "just trading" portuguese had set up trading posts along their route. New wasn't the idea, new was the opportunity to actually occupy big portions of land.

Vor year
Fadogar91 +4
Fadogar91

*the incas had internal struggles (basically divided into two, reigned by two brothers who fought each other)... the aztecs were doing fine, just conquering themselves and sacrificing thousands of people per year, but around 100K indigenous people from other tribes that were being conquered by the aztecs joined the few hundred spaniards and together they brought down the aztecs...

Vor year
Caleb +11
Caleb

@Fadogar91 This is what I hate the most, this BS narrative that native americans were these peaceful perfect people. When in reality they were as you said sacrificing humans, and warring/killing other peoples, fighting over territory. It's just that stronger, better tribes came across from the ocean and won.

Vor year
I J +4
I J

@Caleb In-fighting doesn't excuse the genocide of a group of people, though? This is what I don't understand about the BS, ultra-defensive narrative of "but they were fighting too!" "Africans had slaves too!" - yes, and? How does that, in any way, justify magnifying the slave trade to a global enterprise or committing a genocide of the Natives? This reasoning has the same validity as if I killed an arguing couple cause "they were fighting anyways and having a bad day, soooo why not?"

Vor year
Pedro Tarroso +9
Pedro Tarroso

These videos are amazing! When I was a kid at school in Portugal, I was always told that the motor of the discoveries were the spices... It has hard to imagine why the hell people would enter a wooden boat for spices in the other side of the world... I suggest you to look the Pero Vaz de Caminha's letter of the discovery of Brazil sent to the Portuguese king. The general tone of the letter is of amazement and wonder! Then, as you explain well, exploration of land and people took over...

Vor 11 Monate
Ignacio Heredia +1
Ignacio Heredia

Não pareçeu para vos estranho que Castela seja chamada Espanha? Tamben acho esquisito qué não fale do destino e primeiro impulso dos Templarios mudados ao Orden de Cristo com o propor de reconquérir Jesúsalem como o último objetivo? O hábito da conquista dos Reinos peninsulares e, de facto, um frecuente leit motivo que Fiz fazer um pulo alem do mar cando não ovo máis territorios de mouros que conquistar. (me desculpe por o meu portugués, estou a imparar dende um salada mental que mestura castelhano, galego e portugués)

Vor 10 Monate
Bengi Yardimli +1469
Bengi Yardimli

The whole video is like a history lesson but for some reason it feels like its being told backwards. Like European explorers didn't actually decide suddenly to go east from land to start trading just to find out it was blocked. It was already a trade route going hundreds of years into the past that was suddenly cut off.

Vor year
Recover Health +133
Recover Health

Hundreds no, thousands, The Roman Empire knew China existed and Alexander conquered everything between Greece and India.

Vor year
Hormpir +94
Hormpir

Thats actually a really common misconception but it's completely wrong. The Silk Road trade route wasn't cut off by the Ottoman Empire, because it never ran through that area primarily in the first place. Most trade from the East at this time came through Egypt, which had yet to be conquered, and still remained steady and equally lucrative after the fall of Constantinople. As for the trade coming through Ottoman territory, that wasn't cut off either, because the Ottomans had no incentive to "cut off" trade. That'd just be shooting themselves in the foot economically. The truth is that the European exploration around Africa wasn't in response to being cut off, but rather it was an attempt to cut off the OTTOMANS.

Vor year
Glyph Iest +129
Glyph Iest

This re-telling of history is simply a shoehorning of cherry picked facts into a pre-existing ideologically based narrative. He's started with a thesis and set out to prove it. He is a proper layman attempting a deeply academic area.

Vor year
Kofi Sam +40
Kofi Sam

@Hormpir that’s a lie, how can poor Europe cut off richer Ottoman Empire? They chose the African route, because the ottomans were powerful and they were not allowing the Europeans to pass through their empire to trade directly with the eastern kingdoms, in fact the ottomans want to be the middlemen... So the economy of Europe became stagnant because of the blockade of their trade route by the ottomans. So in order to survive, they have to opt for the African route.

Vor year
Kacper Włoch +99
Kacper Włoch

Saying that by 1450 europe was poor and the rest of the world was rich is already a red flag signaling the whole video is bullshit. And those "european men" who drew the maps were spanish, portuguese and ottoman, the vast majority of europe did not participate in the age of discovery.

Vor year
WWE +264
WWE

Now you've seen his approach to history, ask yourself if anything he says in any of his videos is accurate.

Vor year
KryptixFaMe +39
KryptixFaMe

This is what scares me.

Vor year
Tanjil Madbor +8
Tanjil Madbor

Yes, his informations are accurate

Vor year
WWE +19
WWE

@Tanjil Madbor How do you know, have you checked his sources?

Vor year
Veronica Rossi +18
Veronica Rossi

@Tanjil Madbor Of course they are, Europe had no pepper until the late 1400s, it was full of miserable uneducated poor people and Columbus said he wanted to trade with the West and not the East. Very accurate indeed.

Vor year
bananaempijama +1
bananaempijama

One thing: we Portuguese started sailing exploration because our route to Central Europe was closed. Why? Because in 1385, we won a war against Castela (biggest kingdom from Spain that time) to avoid being annexed by them. After this, Castela blocked any route outside the Iberian peninsula.

Vor 11 Monate
Robin.V.Awasthy +6
Robin.V.Awasthy

So needless to say, this video definitely dropped the ball when it comes to explaining the complexities of European colonialism. While I want to applause Johnny Harris for raising questions with regards to Europe's colonial past. Especially, when I see comments down below from people with the attitude of "Its the past" and "Every country was doing it then". When the very idea of colonialism is deeply rooted on dehumanization people from country other than your own (don't believe me read the white man's burden). I find it hard to do so, especially when the past is dramatized, oversimplified and almost rewritten to fit your own narrative. 'The present past' did a really good critique of this video where he debunks most of what's being said here. I imply you to give it a watch. I think there a deeper problem with Johnny's storytelling style which prioritized good storytelling above all else. This isn't the first time he has been told to cite his sources and if he continue to ignore the underlying problems within his super picturesque videos. I think loss of subs would be the last of his worry as this would bring into question the whole YouTube journalism bubble. Which would be a shame, despite his mess-ups, I do really like the guy for start conversations about difficult topics.

Vor year
Monizᛟᚾ
Monizᛟᚾ

Sow is it ok for you when an arab says he is proud of is colonial past on Balkasn and Iberia?

Vor year
Robin.V.Awasthy +1
Robin.V.Awasthy

@Monizᛟᚾ Yes, that's exactly what I said. (sarcasm) Like, did you even read the comment?

Vor year
Monizᛟᚾ
Monizᛟᚾ

@Robin.V.Awasthy yes i readed the comment. But didnt understood the sarcasm. Cheers

Vor year
Akshat Jain +7
Akshat Jain

It seems like you have found the perfect topic for you, the time when world maps were actually drawn out! Love your content. Can you tell us the books that you referred for this topic

Vor 10 Monate
Joseph Toner +974
Joseph Toner

I think others have mentioned this but this video just seems far too reductive for the purpose of constructing a simple narrative. The idea that Christopher Columbus went to Cuba and then just invented colonialism on his own while none of his crew agreed is wild. The agreement he reached with the Spanish crown before the voyage was that they would take over the land and he would be rewarded with being Viceroy and Governor of the land. Also Portugal didn't enter the Indian Ocean via the South African route until after Columbus' voyage, rather they first travelled overland routes through the middle east to India and Ethiopia. These routes notably passed through the Ottoman Empire which in the video you say didn't occur as it was refused. There's probably way more stuff that it makes it hard to draw out conclusions. I think portraying it all as some big plan as well is a bit disingenuous, to me the arguably scarier aspect of imperialism is that it emerged through shifts in the economy not through the nefarious plans of a few bad guys. Your videos look better than any other videos essayist just please for the love of god do a little bit of factchecking.

Vor year
Jacobo Morales +33
Jacobo Morales

This! And bypassing all the events that happened around the Mediterranean north-east.

Vor year
ruan13o +41
ruan13o

Great point. This narrative is a bit like the Disney film Pocahontas where all the colonialists were nice people apart from the 'evil' captain and once he was stopped all the English people happily sailed home.

Vor year
Joseph Toner +30
Joseph Toner

@chaosXpert it's not about defending at all. His information is just plain wrong. I think it's important that more people are educated and informed about the horrors and legacy of colonialism. This video to me does not provide helpful insight into it because it neglects key facts of the period. It studies the area of Europe in extreme isolation removed from the geopolitical context. It treats Europe as if it acts in any unified fashion. Idk why it makes someone hypocritical to point out that he got several facts wrong here and it weakens the claims of his argument. To be clear I agree with the basic through line of the video that colonialism and imperialism were systems of untold oppression and exploitation that ruined untold numbers of lives perpetrated by European states. It should be recognised that it has had a profoundly negative affect on my countries at the benefit of European nations. If your gonna express that though, get your facts about it right. It really doesn't take much effort to check this stuff, especially the Columbus ones that are just plain silly.

Vor year
Noman Kenneth +28
Noman Kenneth

I really enjoyed his videos but I feel like they've taken a turn more recently... the constant drumming of "old white men", "white men", "men" and then add "christian" now and again feel like I'm watching a segment from the MSM.

Vor year
TheFilip43 +69
TheFilip43

History is too interesting to simplify it to such an extent, I love that Johnny can create a narrative but such an oversimplification wasn't interesting to me.

Vor year
Krišjānis Viļčevskis
Krišjānis Viļčevskis

I agree. Im no history buff but something just felt off about the things he said. Also it started to be boring yeah, the lack of context and more detailed story telling.

Vor year
soso +1
soso

YeA u r just pissed cuz he was not making the video from European stand point of view.

Vor year
Krišjānis Viļčevskis +2
Krišjānis Viļčevskis

@soso i thought he was doing exactly that.

Vor year
crisostomo ibarra +2
crisostomo ibarra

Hey Johnny I've been a fan of your channel for a couple of years but i got disinterested on this video. I then saw your reply at The Past Present's video and it got me excited to see you continue (or reboot) this series. Thank you!

Vor year
ARASH KETABCHI +4
ARASH KETABCHI

Hi Johnny, great content as always! I've been following your channel for some time, and just wondering if you have any plans to do a video on what's happening in Iran. It's a very interesting story and country and its impact on the region. Would be great to hear what you think.

Vor 11 Monate
Josh Mathews +4
Josh Mathews

I love these videos and I’m aware that when telling stories we have to simplify things, however this is inaccurate on a few levels. Hopefully the rest of this series can cover these discrepancies a little more.

Vor year
Agapito +8
Agapito

Johnny to help with the criticisim, the channel Extra Credits has various history videos, and they usually follow up with a longer video like "History of beer - lies" where they go over each point they overdramatized or simplified to fit into the shorter video. It's maybe a helpful way of addressing this for people that want more info!!

Vor year
matheusGMN +403
matheusGMN

as a Brazilian, one thing we learn is that the Portuguese were expert navigators, when they drew up the treaty of tordesilhas, despite never seeing the "new world" before in their lives, they already knew there had to be land, at some distance, over there, so much so that they refused the initial proposal by Spain and demanded one with more nautical miles west so that they could be sure there would be land for them. From what I understand, they knew this because the current in Africa flows upwards from South to the North, so they figured that there must be something, in the other side of the ocean, where the current is stopped and forced to go from North to the South, and they pretty much used that information with the size of the current to figure out how far away it was, and make sure how far away they had to demand to get land, that's why the first Portuguese expedition that found land in 1500 was dead on, and why their trajectory looked like they just did a pit stop on their way to India

Vor year
Jimmy Timmy +11
Jimmy Timmy

That's very interesting.

Vor year
Witthy Humpleton +8
Witthy Humpleton

It's curious because we are taught that the Portuguese initially meant to use the currents cirulating south from the equator to quicker get around the Cape of Good Hope in south Africa, but being taken further west by the current which led to them finding a mass of land there.

Vor year
Antonio Pags +8
Antonio Pags

Este vídeo está cheio de erros esquece 😅

Vor year
OrbLach
OrbLach

@Witthy Humpleton they passed close to Brazil before the treaty being settled , so they had an idea that there was land to that side

Vor year
Guilherme Velhote +11
Guilherme Velhote

Most likely Brasil was already physically known at that time, but kept top secret by the Portuguese crown for strategic reasons

Vor year
AnkBusiness Channel
AnkBusiness Channel

Amazing history lessons. Great work!

Vor year
Samuel Cohen +44
Samuel Cohen

This video over-simplifies a lot of things. I can understand that it's hard to fit everything in a short amount of time to make videos people won't be afraid of the length to watch, but in this case it creates extreme generalisations that misrepresents or even ignores certain nuances and facts that existed in history. Not everthing is "stolen", not everything is caused purely by one ideology. History is complex. There are many players in each story from every side. Not to mention timeline inaccuracies. Please maybe hire a historian if you haven't to help process all things to prevent losing ciritcal information in your process to condense things. It comes across as propaganda-ish or targeted. I hope that's not the aim.

Vor year
Ansh Chadha +1
Ansh Chadha

Propoganda is the aim ofc

Vor year
Khaled N
Khaled N

Man you don’t like it don’t watch it

Vor year
V Volek +2
V Volek

@EM Argonne if you dont like the comment, dont read it or respond to it

Vor year
M za
M za

​@Khaled Nhe is right, its very oversimplified

Vor 11 Tage
Tiago Cidraes
Tiago Cidraes

A small point here, Columbus was considered a madman at the time for wanting to go west because people actually knew the size of the world beck then. Before going to Spain he tried to get funding in Italy and was refused, he then tried to get funding in Portugal where he was told he'd die at sea as the journey would take too long to circle the globe (yes, globe! they already knew the earth was round).

Vor 11 Monate
Hikma History +393
Hikma History

"I mean I'm taking some creative liberty here" - understatement of the year dude! Much of this video is you taking creative liberty. Still a fan of the graphics & visuals ngl

Vor year
Zahran Mohammad
Zahran Mohammad

OMG HIKMA HISTORY ITS YOUUUUUU. we need to get you more likes so you get more recognition.

Vor 10 Monate
Jaeharys +1
Jaeharys

Man I read every single history known to man, read history of global economics, stake holder capitalism and more but the way you put it together is just epic. I could have just watched your videos! NO ONE MAKING ANY RESISTANCE!

Vor 8 Monate
Alex Pickworth +1
Alex Pickworth

I'd keep reading those books, as that sentence is not anywhere near as significant as he is making it out to be. Humans have attempted to conquer others they had a military advantage over since one tribe figured out how to craft a spear. How do you think the other empires he was talking about came to be, handshakes?

Vor 7 Monate
Bruh Moment +1685
Bruh Moment

Before Imperial age, Muslims also viewed themself as superior (hence 'Khairu Ummah'/The Best People) and drew map with Mecca in its center. Up to Opium War, Chinese was also viewed themself as superior and see their culture as the center of civilization (hence Zhong Guo or Central Kingdom). They also drew the map with them in its center. So much story about human nature, tribalism, and superiority complex can be seen from a simple map.

Vor year
Anirudh Thakur +30
Anirudh Thakur

Absolutely true ✅✅

Vor year
SuBhaYU Biswas +65
SuBhaYU Biswas

If only The Indians could do that we wouldn't have been looted, murdered and forcefully converted by the Mughals. Still we stood the test of time.

Vor year
Syed Mohammad Aanas Farukh +4
Syed Mohammad Aanas Farukh

On point, on point.

Vor year
Giovanna Amorim +1
Giovanna Amorim

Wow, it clarified everything in my mind. This video was so helpful. None of my history teachers had ever taught as straightforwardly. By the way, I'm Brazilian and nowadays nothing has changed, we are still a bit savage hahha

Vor 11 Monate
manuel marcano +1
manuel marcano

O vídeo e bem ruim memo, a historiografia a evoluído bastante do tipo de narrativa que ele apresenta

Vor 9 Monate
Myrna A
Myrna A

@manuel marcano the video was good, he got wrong the unimportant stuff, but overall good

Vor 5 Monate
Yin over Yang +7
Yin over Yang

beautiful video, beautiful edit, beautiful color grading, animation, absolutely pro-level. Unfortunately anyone listening to the story can see many logical "it can't have worked that way" moments: Men In smart suits from Spain that built a ship were apparently POORER than the locals., It's certainly political - I think the presenter must know this, as he's got a brain of some sort Im guessing, it's very disturbing,

Vor year
Jeff Golden
Jeff Golden

The rich men in Spain with the massive boats were poorer than the "rich African empires" who only had rafts lmao

Vor Monat
Andrew Wilson +1
Andrew Wilson

I love it when Johnny gets the maps out

Vor 3 Monate
Abhi Singh +2
Abhi Singh

We need narratives like these. Obviously some might not like this but it's needed. Hope it does justice to the subject.

Vor year
Metal Gear +2
Metal Gear

That is the most fascinating story I might have ever heard told ever in my lifetime. You did an absolutely fantastic job narrating the plot.

Vor year
Connor Drake +5
Connor Drake

Nope, this is the most worse waterdown version of world history that I've heard so far and I'm disappointed it came from John Harris. Europe isn't just mere miserable farmers but it is the age of Renaissance and Universities are flourishing.

Vor year
Metal Gear
Metal Gear

@Connor Drake • Europe was exactly how he portrayed them IMO. You had the bulk vast majority of Europeans living as poor Peasants below the Crown of Kings & armies of Knights way above them. There was no such thing as Middle Class prosperity back then. You were under a monolithic hierarchy of absolute power & control

Vor year
Alme Menes +2
Alme Menes

tell me you know nothing about history without telling me you know nothing about history

Vor year
Metal Gear
Metal Gear

@Alme Menes • I’ve heard the same damn story repeatedly. It sounded like he put a more humanistic mindset upon the scenario. Y’all are just overreacting like lil children. The stories we don’t hear about are Latin America or Asian or Middle East History. I don’t seriously care that he made a few mistakes in his story telling. Who seriously GAF minus lil babies.

Vor year
Rabbany Narukaya +1141
Rabbany Narukaya

As a nerd of Google Maps, where I spent significant amount of time just scrolling through maps and looking at specific countries’ street-level views, it’s just really exciting to see Maps from a very historical perspective, with how it tells us stories about it just by a simple look. Can’t wait for the next episodes !

Vor year
Thorfinn +11
Thorfinn

I am a chad of Google maps

Vor year
last chang +6
last chang

allah hu akbar earth is flat.

Vor year
Eljon De Ocampo +1
Eljon De Ocampo

Man, I feel you

Vor year
TooLittleInfo +18
TooLittleInfo

Looking at google maps is literally one of my favourite hobbies

Vor year
NAVI +1
NAVI

GeoGuessr is the perfect game for you then 😆

Vor year
Apex Ackerman +2
Apex Ackerman

Just watched 17 minutes of Johnny harris opening maps of the world . Each bigger than the other.

Vor year
Jenn +1
Jenn

Just a thought- the change between pre-1400s colonization and post-1400s colonization (using civilized v uncivilized moral architecture to overcome a populace's fatigue of money expenditure, lives lost, ethical quandaries, etc) involves so many people, so many journeys, so many stories before it coalesced into Jus Gentium around 1764 that it's nearly impossible to whittle that process down into an easily digestible explanation. I think personifying that change using one example is a good way to introduce people to this history. I dislike that it is Christopher Columbus but that is someone people in America are already familiar with so it can shortcut some of the setup. Essentially Mr. Harris took Columbus and turned him into Santa Claus except instead of explaining the complex idea of generosity and altruism, he's trying to explain the complex history of what changed to make post-1400s colonialism so much worse/stickier/far-reaching. You can disagree with the fact that he chose to personify this change but he was very clear that he took creative liberties to tell this story.

Vor year
Franklin Martínez Martínez +8
Franklin Martínez Martínez

Simplistic, but I get that you're making people curious about the subject. Great production. Open to talk if you want to speak to someone who works with this time period (Spanish colonizing thought).

Vor 11 Monate
Geraldo Loureiro
Geraldo Loureiro

What a good way to teach History, even though I have a few disagreements!

Vor 10 Monate
Ignacio A
Ignacio A

correction 08:13: it is believed that the first island Christopher Columbus reached on his first voyage to America was an island in the Bahamas (called Guanahani). Not Cuba. Look it up on one of your maps. From Guanahani He continued the journey passing through the coasts of Cuba, but he did not stay there, because where he established a first settlement, it was on the island of Hispaniola, current Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Exploring said Island was when he thought he was already in Asia.

Vor 10 Monate
DON FLAVIO +836
DON FLAVIO

Johnny my friend, cool video, but I must disagree in one part. Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain very much aware, and having orders in hand, to take possession of newly discovered lands, to be its governor and viceroy. With this idea in mind he arrived into the Caribbean islands. It is not like he was looking just for trade and then had a change of heart. These prerogatives and orders are contained within the Capitulaciones de Santa Fe, a document subscribe by the Spanish Crown before the first journey, on April 1492. Regards

Vor year
School is not for everyone 😭 +14
School is not for everyone 😭

but his target was asia

Vor year
Johnny Harris +282
Johnny Harris

Totally true. I dramatized the Columbus “realization” as a device/symbol to hint toward this broader paradigm shift away from trade and toward a full imperial project.

Vor year
Frankie +222
Frankie

@Johnny Harris Bad faith.

Vor year
Marsco +154
Marsco

@Johnny Harris but the motivation for imperialism, was trade and religion so there was no paradigm shift whatsoever considering imperialism had been a thing for 1000s of years already.

Vor year
Jx +20
Jx

@Frankie At least he admitted to his mistake, and learnt from it, not everyone can be 100% perfect

Vor year
Suheil Qutteina +1
Suheil Qutteina

Next episode please. I love your videos, but the suspense for the next episode in this series is killing me 😁

Vor year
Chad Davis +1
Chad Davis

You have a fantastic channel. Your talent and effort should really go towards a video about the UAP issue and it’s effects on American government

Vor year
GLPS +8
GLPS

The best use of a video like this is to have a class of history students spot inaccuracies, exaggerations, improper usage of definitions and other flaws.

Vor year
NotAIron +2
NotAIron

Loved the vid. There were pretty big mistakes, but the video as a whole was very entertaining and beautifully shot. Keep up the great videos

Vor year
Lorena A. Ruiz +1
Lorena A. Ruiz

May you please point out each specific mistakes? 🙏 I would really like to know.

Vor 11 Monate
OscarUnrated
OscarUnrated

​@Lorena A. Ruiz Columbus didn't say exactly what people said he did. Many of his journals have been translated over and over and their meaning has been changed. This is a good video on it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEw8c6TmzGg

Vor 9 Monate
Myrna A
Myrna A

The mistakes were unimportant, the main point of the video is correct

Vor 5 Monate
Moepowerplant +1
Moepowerplant

As I have posted in a video about Harris "rewriting" history, I'm giving this one bit to him. Europe at the time the explorations were about to start really was a comparably poor corner of the world. Even in the High Middle Ages, the East was considered *the* fount of wealth and luxury, certainly that was one of the big stuff in the minds of the crusaders. In the 15th c. even with higher peasant wages, there was still a lot of war going on and many towns, trades, and fields were unproductive due to lack of labor brought on by the plague. The Renaissance did not yet enrich any country save a handful of cities in the Mediterranean, and it certainly did not enrich the average folk. Why are these kingdoms even venturing out in the first place if they weren't poor? China certainly saw no reason to explore save for that shortlived flex which did not yield any colonies.

Vor 3 Monate
John L. +539
John L.

I think why some European countries took over a lot of the world was because of the constant wars that happened within Europe with no one country dominating all the others. So there was a constant fear of losing out strategic balance of power once certain countries started getting more powerful from conquering other places outside Europe.

Vor year
XXXTENTAClON +98
XXXTENTAClON

One island in particular was especially paranoid…

Vor year
Bailey Yule
Bailey Yule

@XXXTENTAClON lol

Vor year
Sam Elsey +59
Sam Elsey

These constant wars also had as an effect that european warfare was developing far faster than the rest of the world, which only further expanded the reach and speed of colonization.

Vor year
Jay Son +23
Jay Son

Among other things. Guns, germs, and steel explains the advantages Europeans held in dominating the world.

Vor year
J V +5
J V

it's advantageous to have more land and resources. so even if there was no war, you take stuff like entire continents if you can. but it's inhumane with modern standards.

Vor year
Emmy Williams
Emmy Williams

My graduate class just used this video to power a conversation about the responsibility of content creators in creating accurate historical content. As an example of what NOT to do.

Vor 7 Tage
Timothee Tessier +1
Timothee Tessier

Johnny if you’re reading these comments I have a crummy feeling you won’t be getting to parts 2 & 3. But on a SideNote: You have a glorious collection of maps, truly

Vor year
Nos Ono
Nos Ono

Jonny, your really a YouTuber i have learn more than i have ever been your my favorite journalist. I see some of Europeans felt like your channel is a threat to them but its is not but these is how things started.

Vor 8 Monate
Rupert Ledge +1
Rupert Ledge

This is objectively fascinating. History always is. The key concern is there is some European angle to this. Any human society, with the right power, would not do exactly what happened. They would, they have, and they will continue to do so.

Vor Monat
SonsOf Jorge
SonsOf Jorge

Kudos Johnny. this short condensed 17 minutes video is far superior to any (biased and bland) books I have seen

Vor 11 Monate
Lars Pfefferkorn +184
Lars Pfefferkorn

For those looking for a more accurate (though by no means unchallenged) and less superficial ("they just decided to go East/West and what not" with shiny ships that appeared out of nowhere) explanation of how Europeans came to rule the world, I highly recommend: "The WEIRDest People In The World" by Joseph Henrich, a human evolutionary biology prof at Harvard. It's a so-called Big History book in the style of Yuval Noah Harari's "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind".

Vor year
buck choi +1
buck choi

Admittence of the ingornace was a great theory in sapiens.

Vor year
diniles
diniles

Even Harari is to be taken with a kilogram and a half of salt

Vor year
buck choi
buck choi

@Ismail Mounsif must be nice to see racism everywhere.

Vor year
Miss bloody Mary +1
Miss bloody Mary

Till now we were taught one sided history, thanks Jhonny for telling the other side of history too .

Vor year
Ali Ejmal +3
Ali Ejmal

amazing video! You're telling history in a creative and entertaining way! I am more of a visual person so never liked reading about history! but I am super engaged watching the visuals of history you presented! Incredible! keep up the good work Johnny!

Vor year
Asus4 is a lovely chord
Asus4 is a lovely chord

😂😂😂😂😂😂

Vor 6 Monate
COBassin'
COBassin'

It’s not fully historically accurate but it’s fun. Would really cite this if I was writing a paper

Vor 4 Monate
Connor Drake
Connor Drake

I'm late to the party but this is the most waterdown version of the World History that I've watched so far. :'( The Flate Earth Theory, The Renaissance, The Fall of Constantinople, The Conquest for Spice, and lastly, the fire of Evangelism to spread Christianity had been missed out just to simplify things in a nutshell.

Vor year
Supernova +1
Supernova

Glad to see many people correcting the many errors in this video. On the other hand, nice maps!

Vor 11 Monate
Truth Seeker +2
Truth Seeker

I love your channel and the work you are doing. The one thing I feel that would make things more clear is the defeat of the Moorish Empire in those regions in 1492. Keep up the awesome work! Hopefully humanity can learn to love again.

Vor 11 Monate
Jed Grahek +381
Jed Grahek

I think it might be useful to discuss the massive destructive effects of the Mongols on both China and the Arab world, while Europe was, relatively speaking, not directly affected, and was basically left intact, while the great civilizations of East Asia (except Japan) and Arabia suffered atrocities and horrors on such a mass scale that it is arguable if they had really recovered until relatively recently... and that's completely omitting the effects of European colonialism on these same places later.

Vor year
samanjj +6
samanjj

It wasn’t just Arabia but all nations on the silk route

Vor year
Historical Horizons +24
Historical Horizons

RIP, 500K Hungarians got killed.

Vor year
Michael +1
Michael

Yeah the whole enterprise of going west was start to find India to make easier trade routes. They didn't believe that anerica was a thing. The situation in the East made trade more difficult so they sought to reach Asia by going West

Vor year
E001 +6
E001

U mean The Islamic world not just the arab world ...

Vor year
Slinger
Slinger

@E001 1/3 of the mongols were Islamic turkics and the mongols themselves were also a bit Islamic.

Vor year
Tiago Figueiredo +11
Tiago Figueiredo

Johnny, very interesting topic, kind of true the premise that Europe can be said to have "stolen" the world, but you're cherry picking and adding up to facts to spread the message you want to... Cheers.

Vor year
richardparadox163 +132
richardparadox163

This is what happens when you allow ideology to guide history/journalism instead of the other way around. It becomes like a conspiracy theory where you pick and choose information to construct and conform to a predetermined narrative that you’ve decided. Very disappointed in you Johnny.

Vor year
Carlitox b
Carlitox b

8:29 a little mistake, the first island colon found wasn’t Cuba, it was in fact an island of what we call today the Bahamas then he found the island “la española” which is the island where the countries of Haiti and República Dominicana are located today

Vor year
JITHIN S. SUNNY +1
JITHIN S. SUNNY

Harris, please do a story on the scientific history of the Indian sub-continent

Vor year
Bianca Marbella +1
Bianca Marbella

I love this episode! And I think you're leveling up your script! I giggled and chuckled quite a few times! Why do I find this so funnnnyyy.

Vor 11 Monate
Jamal Williams +8
Jamal Williams

Because it’s fiction?

Vor 10 Monate
Pedro Valente +134
Pedro Valente

The lines that split the world is called the "Treaty of Tordesillas". It was actually to divide the world between the East and the West, whereas the Spain would get the West and Portugal would get the East. Essentially, it was a gamble and a distraction on behalf of Portugal to keep Spain out of the Eastern trade. Also, the "East" side was smaller than the initial draft. The portuguese bartered to draw a line further outwards because they suspected that there was land somewhere further in between (Brazil).

Vor year
Maximilian Beyer +3
Maximilian Beyer

Yes, that was the original line in the Americas. The second one is the treaty of Zaragoza. They basically just ignored the lines for Brazil and the Philippines though

Vor year
Nandi Collector +1
Nandi Collector

*I have a Portuguese coin that commemorates the "Treaty of Tordesillas."*

Vor year
Jeff Pen +1
Jeff Pen

Alright, you talk two straight video about China and the UE, now can we have a video about why the US is so damn big?

Vor year
K Kelly
K Kelly

Hey Johnny thanks for your hard work. I'd like to suggest a topic. How did college become so expensive? Thanks for your consideration.

Vor year
Alvin Bontuyan +1
Alvin Bontuyan

Amazing. Excellent content as always thank you John

Vor 11 Monate
Aidan
Aidan

As a South African you learn about about the way Portugal found India through a sea route so this basically common sense to us

Vor year
Tulpen23
Tulpen23

I always get excited when you bring out the maps!

Vor 9 Monate
Alexandre Tavares +327
Alexandre Tavares

I remember being taught in school that the treaty of Tordesillas (where both countries divided the world in 1494) was slightly changed in request of Portugal, the lines were moved west "slightly". Pedro Álvares Cabral, who is credited to have discovered Brazil in 1500 was not actually who "discovered" Brazil. I was told that it is believed that a Portuguese sail on its way to India was caught in a storm and wandered way off route and sighted Brazil many years before but it was kept a secret and that's why the Portuguese requested a change to the original plans so that they could have Brazil.

Vor year
Gab Gotti
Gab Gotti

Um I disagree. The Spanish benefited more from it. Portugal had “discovered” many islands in the Caribbean and lands in North America. Look at Curacão and Nova Scotia. But they weren’t allowed to keep the lands. Also they “discovered” many more places in East Asia but the Spanish had the lines to their advantage again.

Vor year
DESI BOY
DESI BOY

Wao.

Vor year
DESI BOY +3
DESI BOY

there is a *very little* fun fact in the video. The line Pope drew was different. (Line of demarcation 1493) The dividing line you showed was set up in *Tordesillas.* (1494) Which was drawn up by Spain and Portugal. *Without Pope.*

Vor year
Carlos Gonçalves +1
Carlos Gonçalves

@Gab Gotti ,as a matter of fact, "spain"discovered nothing and all the places they went was with portuguese pilots, cartography and naval architecture.

Vor year
Gab Gotti
Gab Gotti

@Carlos Gonçalves Yup. Exactly

Vor year
hoppypoppy +247
hoppypoppy

Bro, you have the tools to make the complicated easy. Don't offend our intelligence and don't underestimate YOUR skills by assuming you can't do it and that we can't grasp the "vastly complicated 500-year history". If I wanted another video of the stupid things we share in the school playground because we were actually asleep during history class and only heard a third of the lesson, I'll go to some random "Top 10 facts about the Middle Ages", thank you. When I go to watch your channel, I'm looking for in-depth analysis, well-researched points. For me to come watch your video and hear you saying sh*t my junior high school teacher had already proved wrong 20 years ago in frigging Brazil is just... 🤦‍♀️ So please, don't fall into the trap of oversimplifying stuff. There's already waaaay too much of that stuff on YouTube and it doesn't suit you.

Vor year
Anthony Reilly
Anthony Reilly

Interesting, but all the way through all I could think is how cool it would be to have a massive table to roll maps out on to.

Vor 10 Monate
Romeu Paz +2
Romeu Paz

One thing that upsets me, as portuguese, is that no one is talking how hard was this endeavor at the time, a part from all the crimes committed, this is an amazing part of history and human ingenuity. Portugal was mapping the world winds a setting everything in order to allow navigation. There were also secret mission at the time. Please chech this timeline its amazing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_discoveries Check your dates Johnny

Vor year
Victor Godoy +3
Victor Godoy

Hey Johnny! Cool video with some issues that you already addressed. You know what would be a very interesting topic to see from your perspective? American imperialism. Your take on how the USA spread its influence on major conflicts across the globe. Of course Europe had its fair share on it, but the US keeps on expanding their influence till this day

Vor year
Kevin +3
Kevin

what you're describing is how empire (even small one) works, the history of conquering is the history of humanity, NASA is doing it. it's how human is build: we get to go and conquer to survive that's why we have always a war going on some where on earth. it never stops

Vor year
Nathan Harrison +2
Nathan Harrison

Another excellent documentary. Thank you! I wish all learning could be this interesting and fun. I wonder why, if you look at minute 15:50, Spain didn’t go up, what is today, the East Coast of United States? And I sure wish this young man would do a docu series on modern human origin and migration.

Vor 11 Monate
Gabriel King +1879
Gabriel King

The opening of the video is inaccurate, Europe had already been involved in the Silk Road trade routes, and had only been locked out in the 1400s by the ottomans, thus encouraging the search for other trade routes to the east

Vor year
Pierzing.glint1sh7 +56
Pierzing.glint1sh7

Europe was not a union then don't forget, they had no chance against a united ottoman empire. It is not correct to say ''europe'' had been involved with the silk road, any more than it is to say that ''europe stole the world'' The idea that europe as a whole was involved in a an east west trade route only makes sense if Europe was a united entity, and the last time that was true was under the romans nearly 1500 years before the events in the video. There definitely an was an established route then, but it died long before the ottomans even existed The ottomans actually boosted trade east west by having large amounts of land under one single government. This enabled goods to pass much more easily, provided you could pay for it. So if anything, they actually boosted trade alot more than what it was, and they became rich. Naturally, the french english dutch spanish wanted a piece of the action so they had to try find their own route east. It wasnt like there was a huge roman road put in 2000 years ago that the ottomans found and simply cut off and that starved Europe the way russia is doing today. No. That was absolutely not the case.

Vor year
Gabriel King +64
Gabriel King

@Pierzing.glint1sh7 the western Roman Empire collapsed ~450ad, so *nearly* 1000 years not 1500, and Ofcourse the Byzantine empire had lasted right up Untill the 1400s. Why does Europe need to be a United entity to engage in Eastern trade? Does the production of traceable goods stop once a single central bureaucracy no longer commands it? The Silk Road was not a rod from the Roman Empire to China but a web of land and maritime trade routes with hundreds of individual states along the way, India had no problem trading while separated into dozens of states, why would Europe(besides losing access to these routes once the Ottoman Empire took control of the eastern Mediterranean)

Vor year
girl squad +27
girl squad

The trade monopoly and gate keeping of the Ottoman empire and the Venetian republic basically kickstarted the exploration of the western coastal nation-states of Europe.

Vor year
Zachary M +5
Zachary M

So basically it not even close to being as one sided as he said and remember the the pope back then sadly 😞 was easily persuade by money or things so his words did not represent the Christian/catholic view and the the reason why the Spanish did not like Jews was because of what the Jewish people believe in same thing for Muslims witch is understandable at that time Ps: please don’t think of catholic people in a bad way by this video

Vor year
Philipp Lyanguzov +11
Philipp Lyanguzov

@Gabriel King The Byzantines were Roman and were referred to as such by their contemporaries. Their culture and legal systems were a continuation of Old Roman traditions in ways that their western counterpart was not. They are only a different state by our modern understanding of the word.

Vor year
KitKat270 +13
KitKat270

For anybody interested in a more accurate overview of the history of European trade with other historic powers, I highly reccommend "A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World" by William Bernstein. It discusses the history of the Silk Road dating back to Roman times; how all trade was effected by the Black Death (as a result, European peasants got more labor rights and universities became more accessable). It also discusses how European empires were not the only ones to practice slavery or conquer other peoples and engage in violence to protect or claim land and trade routes (as others in the comments section have pointed out). Finally, the book shows how a cultural exchange between Europe, India, China, and the Middle East took place in the process of trading goods, which is really fascinating. I also think it's worth noting that people don't need the subject of historic trade to be "sensationalized" or "moralized" when it's interesting in and of itself and shows the best and worst aspects of humanity.

Vor year
Kenneth Taylor +1
Kenneth Taylor

Very good. We know so much more than this series presents. He is a clever presenter. Wish he’d go back to at least Rome.

Vor 9 Monate
KitKat270 +1
KitKat270

@Kenneth Taylor Thanks :)

Vor 8 Monate
Amila Perera +6
Amila Perera

I'm from Srilanka and my last name is Perera. It is now the most commonly used surname in Srilanka followed by "Fernando" and "De Silva". All these names were introduced by the Portuguese.

Vor 11 Monate
Bruno Silva
Bruno Silva

Shouldn't it be "Pereira" and "da Silva"?

Vor 10 Monate
Rui Lopes
Rui Lopes

Shit, really sorry about that. We have so many Silvas already.

Vor 10 Monate
Rui Lopes
Rui Lopes

@Bruno Silva probably it was used like this back then. Or maybe it slowly mutated to those versions

Vor 10 Monate
Bruno Silva
Bruno Silva

@Rui Lopes it's probably the second one. And yes, there's a Silva everywhere 😂

Vor 10 Monate
Jiré Banzé +1
Jiré Banzé

This has to be the best history video I've ever watched. Impeccable quality

Vor 8 Monate
Mr R +7
Mr R

You are my favourite YouTuber. Indian colonisation was itself a huge topic where all European fought to gain control over it as well as with local kings. I will be thankful to you if you make video on this. Lots of love ❣️ from India

Vor 8 Monate
Farah Aisyah
Farah Aisyah

Hi Johnny! This video was impressive as always! I hope you will create a story through the video about the VOC, known as Dutch East India company. A multinational company, and it was really powerful! Even they made on their own currency….

Vor year
Kriegter +673
Kriegter

The fall of Constantinople was one of the major reasons for all the other stuff that happened later on as what was once the most significant trade route is now under Ottoman control

Vor year
JonasPrudas +13
JonasPrudas

The is was important indeed. The excape route for Europe would happen through the "empty" western side, by boats.

Vor year
Luca Esposito +20
Luca Esposito

Exactly, and after that only Venice had the right to trade with the East, and that made them even richer

Vor year
Giovanni Cardoso +16
Giovanni Cardoso

True but the portuguese started their african and atlantic explorations before 1453, so there were already sparks of the idea before that, however I do get that even before 1453 Constantinople was so small and surrounded by ottomans suffering constant attacks that they no longer had any significant grip on the trade, so you could still say that might have influenced the portuguese to try to get in on the trade themselves even if they started before they got the news of constantinople's demise.

Vor year
Maddog Basil +10
Maddog Basil

I feel as thoughr the fall of constantinople doesn't really affect the european expansion westward The portugese were battling the mamelukes in the arabian sea ling before the byzantines fell Also the orthodox catholic schism was seen just as deadly as the religious wars between Islam and christianity So the fall if the eastern Roman's didnt leave as much of an impact except for maybe some extra trade deals with the venetians and the genoese losing their influence in the black sea

Vor year
Pavitar Singh
Pavitar Singh

Even though the video is inaccurate it still explains a lot in a fun and easy way to newcomers in the topic.

Vor 2 Monate
Royce Vera +1
Royce Vera

This used to be part one of a series, I hope you continue with this subject

Vor year
Saffron Blaze +1
Saffron Blaze

Wow, first time seeing this. At first I found it a compelling way to make history accessible, but so many little things started to pile up that the whole enterprise began to grate on me. I didn't feel like this was education but rather indoctrination and that the narrative was more important than the facts. I thought I might be too harsh in my criticisms, but I see by the comments that this view is not in the minority.

Vor 11 Monate
Spliffy_kohlab
Spliffy_kohlab

Growing up in the Caribbean we learned all this in primary school. He has taken some liberties. But very much generally true.

Vor 9 Monate
Niv +1
Niv

amazing work johnny u always astonish us, keep it up, no one is as credible as you i believe

Vor year
Melker Wicksell +1772
Melker Wicksell

I think you oversimplified Europe and Asias situation a bit. Europe wasn't just a place of miserable farmers. There was also universities, innovations, impressive architecture, skilled practicioners of metal and glassworking and all kinds of other sophisticated trades, philosophy, theology and new political ideas, it was also in a age of rediscovery of ancient wisdom ie the renaissance. Yes there was a lot of farmers who lived in relative poverty but this was true in the Middle East and Asia as well. At least in Europe there was seasons of the year where you couldn't grow or harvest food so many peasants had periods of relatively little work compared to places where you have multiple harvests every year. And by 1450 not everyone lived under feudalism in Europe, there was even Dietermarschen in northern Germany, a peasant republic you could concider a proto-communist state. There was also many so called Free Cities that were democratically run (with limitations ofc) and many other regional and national systems of government than pure feudalism. There was also a lot of spices in circulation in Europe both domesticly grown and imported from the east in limited quantities, and while they might not have had black pepper they had long pepper, which is very similiar to black pepper but slightly spicier and more fruity. In fact if you read medieval European recipies you'd be suprised they seem to have way more spices in them than modern European recipies. This is may partly be the result of a more recent development in European cuisine where you put emphasis on getting the best ingredients and preparing them well, and not masking the flavour with too much spices. Similiar to Japanese cuisine. Europe was far from a paradise, but it wasn't exactely more miserable for the lower classes than the rest of the world. And it wasn't necessarily less advanced overall, just different.

Vor year
Chris Agnos +47
Chris Agnos

Perhaps the Renaissance came as a result of all of the exploration and the new ideas they found from around the globe...

Vor year
A Realist +22
A Realist

The black plague and the dark ages had stripped everything that Europeans had.

Vor year
Melker Wicksell +124
Melker Wicksell

@Chris Agnos not really, the renaissance began before the new world was discovered. It was driven by ancient greek and roman sources which in part had been translated from Arabic, since the Arab empires had preserved a lot of the sources after they conquered Eastern Roman lands.

Vor year
Melker Wicksell +99
Melker Wicksell

@A Realist This is a gross oversimplification. The dark ages doesn't mean it was a time of only bad, it's a word not popular with modern historians since it has negative conotations. And the black plauge actually overall led to better conditions for the lower classes due to reduced overpopulation and increased demand for labour.

Vor year
Loykaz +96
Loykaz

He tells it that way to minimize it coz he feels "white guilt", quite obvious from his script

Vor year
JIE SHENG +2
JIE SHENG

I have a question: why the map of Spain at 8:10 doesn’t include the territory of the Kingdom of Aragon, but only the crown of Castile? Besides, at 9:35, Columbus reported to King and Queen, if I’m not mistaken, the king here, is referred to Ferdinand II of Aragon, which is the King of Aragon. That Spain, from where Columbus departed in that historic moment, should include Aragon.

Vor year
Pinón Y Telva
Pinón Y Telva

And Murcia and the kingdom of Granada

Vor 11 Monate
LHollan
LHollan

Encaixe there was no Spain at that time, there were many kingdoms in iberia península that were all of them conquered by kingdom of Castile (except for Portugal that always defeated Castile) the lands conquered by Castile became Spain eventually

Vor 6 Monate
Are
Are

All your work is so well done. Cant wait for the next part. Like seriously dude Youve mastered your craft and always deliver interesting facts and i mean facts. 🤘 you rock!

Vor year
We Are Simulated
We Are Simulated

This video is wildly inaccurate and filled with outright lies. MAJOR portions of this video are complete nonsense that Johnny made up to have a good story to tell. The truth is far more interesting.

Vor year
Are
Are

@We Are Simulated we tell me then. im interested. The stage is yours.

Vor year
We Are Simulated
We Are Simulated

@Are I mean you can go watch an actual historian break down why this video is so inaccurate. "How Johnny Harris Rewrites History" as he goes into detail. But one of the biggest things would be the claim that Europe wasn't trading with anyone at the time. When the Silk Road was around long before this period.

Vor year
Exgrmbl
Exgrmbl

@Are You are mistaking good production for good content. Not everything that shines is gold

Vor year
Are
Are

@Exgrmbl cool so break down the facts for me. Or you just wanted to comment something unoriginal lol. Tell me what he could have explained better in full detail. Id totally listen.

Vor year
Serge
Serge

Fantastic video and a fun way to explain a controversial topic. I doesn't have to be accurate from the point of view of history, but teach you about the paradigm shift in the minds of Europeans. Spaniards at that time, for example, believe they will teach their way of thinking and living like the Romans did before.

Vor 5 Monate
Larissa Tom
Larissa Tom

I wish you had been my middle school history teacher. This is fascinating.

Vor 9 Monate

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