Cracking Enigma in 2021 - Computerphile

  • Am Vor 29 Tage

    ComputerphileComputerphile

    Dauer: 21:20

    Enigma is known as the WWII cipher, but how does it hold up in 2021? Dr Mike Pound implemented it and shows how it stacks up against his laptop.
    Mikes Code:
    bit.ly/C_Mike_enigma

    Cryptool v2 is here:
    bit.ly/C_Cryptool

    The original paper that Mike's attack is based off
    web.archive.org/web/20060720040135/members.fortunecity.com/jpeschel/gillog1.htm


    facebook.com/computerphile
    twitter.com/computer_phile

    This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley.

    Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: bit.ly/nottscomputer

    Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at www.bradyharan.com

AboveEmAllProduction
AboveEmAllProduction

Mama Mia hundar börjar tala mat

Vor 14 Stunden
Hans Flaman
Hans Flaman

Shouldn’tvring positions be 26*2? Last ring is not move an other one

Vor Tag
Tim Go
Tim Go

Can we hear what Dr Mike Pound thinks about the BREACH attack that also is descyphers one character at a time in current Https by exploiting that the correct guess yields to most compressed responses? (Black Hat 2013 - SSL, Gone in 30 Seconds - A BREACH beyond CRIME)

Vor 3 Tage
Greg M.
Greg M.

It might interest you to know that every published work from tv, movies, commercials, and youtube, and even the Bible/religions have been encrypted for only the most intelligent to decipher. All the rules are hidden in plain sight. I know cause I am the first person to decipher it. They call me Lucifer (Loose "if" er) and that's just one of many names they use for me.

Vor 4 Tage
omzig18
omzig18

I want one of the alan Turing notes wouldn't mind one of the Sherlock Holmes quarters too

Vor 4 Tage
philip dias
philip dias

An 8086 could probably break it

Vor 6 Tage
Hard Cas
Hard Cas

I was writing a report about Enigma, and while researching I found this interesting finding. John Herivel was a worker at Bletchley Park, and he claimed that Enigma operators being under wartime stress wouldn't fully change the settings of the previous day to the new one, and we can use this carelessness to help us find the settings for the day. This became known as the Herivel Tip, and it apparently accelerated the decryption of Enigma. The reason why I find this interesting is because this Tip would practically be useless. The Enigma machine itself wouldn't transmit and required 2 machines to operate and communicate messages through radio (that's how we picked up their encrypted messages). So why would an operator, who didn't fully change the settings to the setting of today, send messages to the other operator in the first place? I'm not doubting Herivels genius, but I just find this tip to be completely pointless because unless the Germans were really incompetent, they wouldn't waste time sending a message that the other operator can't understand unless they somehow randomly put it in the same setting as them. Please help me in understanding why the Herivel tip is considered a big help in deciphering enigma, the more I think about it, the more pointless and unhelpful it seems.

Vor 7 Tage
Rey Blais
Rey Blais

Anytime I hear about Turing, it always makes me sad to think how he was treated after all his accomplishments.

Vor 7 Tage
Craig Monty
Craig Monty

But you didn't even crack it after all that waffle? Just got "slightly closer".....

Vor 8 Tage
Bruce Rosner
Bruce Rosner

While the war time Enigma messages were limited in length they also had very limited military vocabularies. There are not many different words used in weather forecasts or a troop movement orders or naval communications for example. The specific circumstance of an intercepted encrypted message can give useful information of its purpose and hence its vocabulary.

Vor 8 Tage
Nixel
Nixel

So if you were to write a script that shows the current configuration and gradually gets more of them correct, it would _actually_ look like those Hollywood password cracking scenes, where the letters "lock into place" when they're correct?

Vor 9 Tage
Walter bishop
Walter bishop

So the basic understanding is mathematicians in the 1940s could work out better than people today, with no computers.

Vor 9 Tage
James Ward
James Ward

You're approach is based on a knowledge of how an enigma machine works though, did Alan Turing have a captured enigma machine?

Vor 11 Tage
Hard Cas
Hard Cas

Most likely, on May 9, 1941 the Royal navy forced a Uboat to surface. While the Germans were bailing, they were able to capture an intact Enigma machine, with a codebook. From there they took apart the Enigma machine to discover how it works, specifically the internal wiring of all the rotors, and were able to use the machine to decrypt messages.

Vor 7 Tage
VendiGlobe
VendiGlobe

So what about giving Polish people some credit. Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski

Vor 11 Tage
Michael Dodd
Michael Dodd

Cracking Enigma is easier than looking in to the camera it seems :)

Vor 11 Tage
Peder Sloth Züricho
Peder Sloth Züricho

Question: Mirroring camera or lefthanded?

Vor 11 Tage
Peder Sloth Züricho
Peder Sloth Züricho

Forget what i said i answered my own question, the letters are the right way around ;)

Vor 11 Tage
Rk Dl
Rk Dl

Talking about Enigma also seems to itch the privates after @17:51 minutes

Vor 12 Tage
R
R

it was dubbed ' the unbreakable code ', if I remember right...

Vor 12 Tage
Decibell one
Decibell one

So hard to follow.

Vor 12 Tage
chan dick
chan dick

watching him moves around in his chair irritates me

Vor 12 Tage
JP V
JP V

can you crack sugma?

Vor 12 Tage
Armin Lutz
Armin Lutz

Call it a hunch but i think if you get some of it right, it will be slightly better.

Vor 12 Tage
adrian coelho
adrian coelho

Very interesting.

Vor 12 Tage
gamanyme
gamanyme

if you did your homework you would know that in fact the messages send via enigma DID have in fact a particular string text everytime and everytime in the same location of the message and turing also had to used it to crack the new combination everyday fast eneough

Vor 12 Tage
DJ DarkMatter
DJ DarkMatter

this dude is rambling. said the same thing like 5 times. no hate, but annoying. this vid could have been 10 mins long

Vor 13 Tage
Geert van Kollenburg
Geert van Kollenburg

19:56 kid skipping through the garden in the background :). Wonders of working from home

Vor 13 Tage
Blackened Sprite
Blackened Sprite

7:37 if I recall correctly, the enigma machines were changed daily, so you literally had that day to do it, then had to start again the next day, and nothing you did before was of any real use (except, obviously, those pesky weather reports...)

Vor 13 Tage
Lost Alone
Lost Alone

Enigma is the perfect example of why people who don't know about cryptography shouldn't decide which crypto system to use.

Vor 13 Tage
Bill Davies
Bill Davies

Mike still has some fanfold paper... amazing!

Vor 13 Tage
aps ind
aps ind

That's a lot of ifs before you say it's easy to crack

Vor 13 Tage
Kuit the Geek
Kuit the Geek

I'm definitely going to start using the phrase, "How English is this?" when correcting grammar. I love the concept of how close is something to a language and just referring to it as "How language is this?". This was a great video. Very informative.

Vor 13 Tage
Zoltán Pósfai
Zoltán Pósfai

"Modern ciphers don't have this issue." Microsoft pptp 3DES anyone? :)

Vor 13 Tage
Armagan Aktan
Armagan Aktan

How I get jealous when I see much smarter people...

Vor 14 Tage
Mr. UwU
Mr. UwU

Something I've learn of that feeling is to don't compare yourself to others, and instead focus on just learning stuff

Vor 13 Tage
Nick Crosby
Nick Crosby

And your next vid on cracking Lorenz? Love this stuff

Vor 14 Tage
Zormac
Zormac

He keeps saying that if you get one rotor right it's better than if you don't get any. How exactly does that work? If each rotor's input is the output of the previous one, wouldn't it always be complete nonsense unless you get everything right? How can a single rotor setting return some of the correct keys?

Vor 14 Tage
Perry Rhodan
Perry Rhodan

Think about.. your way of solution, will it work if the original message was written backwards? ( 2 possibilities. First words versus sdrow and second complete sentence backwards.. )

Vor 14 Tage
david bullock
david bullock

After the War the British gave the enigma system to the Australian Government as a "Uncrackable" encryption device, knowing full well they could look at all our secret communications.... Can't wait for us Aussies to become a republic.

Vor 14 Tage
Mesut Baysan
Mesut Baysan

In the ww they ended all messages with the same greet. How did this phrase improve the decryption?

Vor 14 Tage
James Smith
James Smith

"During the Woarr"

Vor 14 Tage
Chris Coffee
Chris Coffee

I've not seen printer paper like that since I coded S3 for ICL in the late 1980s - every morning a bloke came round the office with a massive trolley and dropped off a stack of it with a printout of my journals and source listings from yesterday !

Vor 14 Tage
Shicho Sekura
Shicho Sekura

Liked it just for the "random" ZUSE 6:06

Vor 14 Tage
Paul Morrey
Paul Morrey

thanks

Vor 14 Tage
Mścisław Chrząszczewicz
Mścisław Chrząszczewicz

Thanks to Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski it was cracked first on december 1932. Great video!

Vor 14 Tage
C20H42
C20H42

Very interesting and nice video!

Vor 15 Tage
SenorQuichotte
SenorQuichotte

This dude needs his own channel. Throw an AI with a neural net at it with some cloud computing power, solved in 10 sec. Tensorflow could probably do it in 3 minutes.

Vor 15 Tage
Simos Katsiaris
Simos Katsiaris

will not go into deepL, uses the basis of deepL...

Vor 15 Tage
Matthias Schorer
Matthias Schorer

The enigma is a very clever piece of gear. I programmed one for the iPad and for that had to dive deep into the mechanics of that maschine. The weak point was the switch board which the Germans put in to make it more secure. The contrary was the case.

Vor 15 Tage
John Barradale
John Barradale

How would you decrypt this code if you had no notion of using rotors or wheels in the first place?

Vor 15 Tage
John P
John P

Would have helped more if the video showed how to write code in a laptop to crack enigma or which program is used, or how to access that program especially if the instructions depend almost entirely on the computer to do the legwork that would be the most critical information to detail.

Vor 15 Tage
Dan Bowkley
Dan Bowkley

Going at it totally backwards, how difficult would it have been, during WWII, to have implemented AES on the hardware of the day? Would it have been possible at all?

Vor 15 Tage
Tulip1811
Tulip1811

great video except for the seasickness

Vor 15 Tage
CmdrCommando
CmdrCommando

Consider this, Arne Beurling did it with a pen and paper during the war before the Turing machine.. And laptops. Love the show!!!

Vor 15 Tage
Mateusz SP8EBC
Mateusz SP8EBC

By the way. Will it be possible to crack the Enigma settings if it was used not for encrypting an text in any human language, but rather for encrypting a binary data saved in something 'Base64 like'. I think that this might be way, way, way harder if the input set wouldn't have any strict structure or anything to use for analysis like that presented in the video.

Vor 15 Tage
David Gough
David Gough

At 1.07 he says," let's look briefly at what the Enigma machine is. The subtitles, on the other hand, prefer to say, "Let's look at what the knitting machine is". Time to get the sub-title program improved.

Vor 15 Tage
Jeroen Doppenberg
Jeroen Doppenberg

I see Thinkpad, I upvote

Vor 15 Tage
Brandon Hoffman
Brandon Hoffman

I was thinking about enigma during this episode, which i then corelated to the United States using the Navajo. Which then led me to wonder whether or not the united states drafted people of a different nation to fight for them. Yep we drafted peoples from a different nation. Which to me feels like subjugation and the continuation of mistreatment towards the Native American's. It also makes that poster of uncle Sam pointing with the caption that reads "we want you" have some real negative vibes.

Vor 15 Tage
Sven Höhne
Sven Höhne

Did I get you right, you set yourself on the situation that you know the internal configuration of each rotor, or did your software bruteforce those aswell?

Vor 15 Tage
Alespic
Alespic

Nice, I brought Turing as my exam’s thesis

Vor 16 Tage
Ales Z
Ales Z

you should have been born 80 years ago man!

Vor 16 Tage
james grist
james grist

cheating by knowing about the cogs and the switch board. how did bletchley figure this part out?

Vor 16 Tage
VK's ASDgaming
VK's ASDgaming

@plasmaastronaut It certainly is more efficient than "unbreakable" codes in movies which are being decrypted before they are implemented.

Vor 15 Tage
plasmaastronaut
plasmaastronaut

@VK's ASDgaming what a cheap piece of junk, no wonder it got cracked

Vor 15 Tage
VK's ASDgaming
VK's ASDgaming

@plasmaastronaut Commercial Enigma had three rotors. Army Enigma added plugboard. Later more wheels were added and those were not commercially available.

Vor 15 Tage
plasmaastronaut
plasmaastronaut

@VK's ASDgaming bah. its pretty lame if in war time the military is using internationally / commercially available 'off the shelf' machine variants.

Vor 15 Tage
VK's ASDgaming
VK's ASDgaming

Poles had already broken and reverse-engineered 3-rotor Enigma with plugboard and gave Brits this info and machinery just before the war begun. Brits also had procured commercial variant with simplest way possible: buying one.

Vor 15 Tage
CityStarrzz
CityStarrzz

Watching with headphones and wincing when he draws with that felt tip marker.

Vor 16 Tage
oppamaclare
oppamaclare

17:52 ... this is when he rearranges the rotors.

Vor 16 Tage
John Pesich
John Pesich

I couldn't finish. I wish a word on SHA-2 would have been made.

Vor 16 Tage
John Pesich
John Pesich

One is more English than another... Clearly you haven't been on Twitter.

Vor 16 Tage
DIREWOLFx75
DIREWOLFx75

"this isn't something one does by hand right, not quickly" I'll give you one name: Arne Beurling. On his own, without any computation assist, without access to any hardware ( unlike Bletchley park, which had a copy of the early Enigma that was brought out from Poland ), he cracked the Geheimschreiber, which was roughly the Enigma for teleprinters, in 2 weeks.

Vor 16 Tage
Christian Borss
Christian Borss

Great video! When you explained your algorithm, I was wondering how you can avoid that you run into a local maximum. But apperently it happens. Any suggestions how to improve it besides starting again with a different seed and see if you end up with a better fitness?

Vor 16 Tage
Adam Young
Adam Young

Get this geek into mi5

Vor 16 Tage
Aaron Cook
Aaron Cook

You never told us the weakness of enigma

Vor 16 Tage
Michael Brady
Michael Brady

Brits only "broke the code" because they captured the "Day Codes" from the Germans.

Vor 16 Tage
Thorstein Klingenberg
Thorstein Klingenberg

References his laptop a lot, has a ThinkPad X-series. I love it 👍😊

Vor 16 Tage
Jarod Baker
Jarod Baker

mans just explained the weakness of enigma 180 times before getting to the point.

Vor 16 Tage
Katy Gets Rekt TV
Katy Gets Rekt TV

Any chance you could spend £10 on a tripod so I don't feel like I'm in Drake Passage for the entire video? Thanks!

Vor 16 Tage
Fled From Nowhere
Fled From Nowhere

Does he have some sort of bug crawling under his skin? Why does he move like that?

Vor 16 Tage
Grimshaw Grummage
Grimshaw Grummage

this video just ended abruptly

Vor 16 Tage
Rixtronix LAB
Rixtronix LAB

Cool info, thanks :)

Vor 16 Tage
233kosta
233kosta

My instinctive answer to "Is the Enigma secure today" is a flat out no, for the simple reason that it got cracked in the '40s. Bruteforce-wise it may still be nigh-on impossible, but if there were enough vulnerabilities to make it crackable back then, there's no reason those same vulnerabilities wouldn't be used to crack it today and given nearly a century of development in computing - much more quickly and efficiently. No cipher is safe from attack by intelligent and resourceful individuals, now more than ever before.

Vor 16 Tage
Wiizl
Wiizl

But did Turing know how Enigma worked? I mean is it even possible to crack if you don't know that there are plugs and rotors an how many of them might be?

Vor 16 Tage
SheyD78
SheyD78

Very surprising, I really did assume the brute force of a modern pc would break it without difficulty given the difference between what was available then and now. With people mining crypto-currency with graphics cards it seemed likely. Guess some things can't really be forced with just a bigger hammer (so to speak).

Vor 16 Tage
Mr. UwU
Mr. UwU

I guess a top-level super computer would be able to brute-force it. After all, the best one is able to do 450petaflops

Vor 13 Tage
Rodrigo de Piérola
Rodrigo de Piérola

(cough) Polish decoders and their bombas(cough)

Vor 16 Tage
Peter Rimshnick
Peter Rimshnick

Why not use simulated annealing or genetic algorithms etc?

Vor 16 Tage
Karel van der Velden
Karel van der Velden

After having worked later generation machines (KL-7) in the seventies as a navy radio-operator I marvel at the simplicity of this explanation. Thanks.

Vor 16 Tage
rayan69pl
rayan69pl

Another Briton who repeats the lies that Alan Turing has broken the Enigma code. The Enigma code was broken by three Polish mathematicians, ie Jerzy Różycki, Marian Rejewski and Henryk Zygalski !

Vor 16 Tage
VK's ASDgaming
VK's ASDgaming

@rayan69pl You imply that I lied by saying that Poles made the groundwork of breaking Engima by cracking and reverse-engineering its army variant with three rotors and plugboard. They also gave all their knowledge to Brits just before the war. Sad truth is that Poles just got forgotten because their part remained quite well hidden after the war.

Vor 15 Tage
rayan69pl
rayan69pl

@VK's ASDgaming I know it's hard in the West to admit your lies, but before you write anything, read about it. The Enigma code was cracked and read for the first time in 1932 by Marian Rejewski. Of course, Turing contributed to the work, but to give him all the credit is a plain, hideous lie!

Vor 15 Tage
VK's ASDgaming
VK's ASDgaming

They set the foundation by breaking army-Enigma with three rotors and plugboard. Enigma had to be continuously broken.

Vor 15 Tage
Stefan Zett
Stefan Zett

With a modern computer it should be done in some minutes to break the positions of a three wheeled enigma. If you like you could read former secret texts from the war.

Vor 16 Tage
Korgo
Korgo

Very interessting! Thanks :)

Vor 16 Tage
Donald Burkhard
Donald Burkhard

Thought it was made to decrypt not encrypt?

Vor 16 Tage
Donald Burkhard
Donald Burkhard

But one “p” not always same letter out?

Vor 17 Tage
Dan Kelly
Dan Kelly

I actually haven't seen indications that he truly understands this subject matter. I get the feeling he got help online and/or from friends and can barely see the forest for the trees.

Vor 17 Tage
Gislo A
Gislo A

Something about this guy I just like, he starts talking - i listen... passion perhaps? He seems likeable. Wonder how he is in his personal life hm...

Vor 17 Tage
Toni Ruottu
Toni Ruottu

At 4:00 he says we don't have any idea what the plaintext is. He then proceeds to assume that the plaintext is human readable. Does this mean that the Enigma can securely be used to encrypt random sequences that are not human readable?

Vor 17 Tage
george d
george d

@10:45 you said that there are 26 * 3 different starting positions. It should have been 26 ^ 3 instead.

Vor 17 Tage
Antonio Duverge
Antonio Duverge

Turin did a much better job than this guy, he talks and talks at the end, he cheated anyway.

Vor 17 Tage
LA3CLA on the road and more
LA3CLA on the road and more

Germans scientists in WW2 had some brilliant minds... they overengineered lots of things for quality too.

Vor 17 Tage
pogonator1
pogonator1

Question, you and Turing know how the Enigma machine works, and because of this you see the where the weaknesses are. But if you just had the output, a lot of coded messages, how much work would it be to break it today?

Vor 17 Tage
Somting Wong Wai
Somting Wong Wai

So the best place to keep my passwords is a physical written sticky note in my draw.

Vor 17 Tage
DowskiVision MagicalOracle
DowskiVision MagicalOracle

Videos like this are why I love the computerphile channel!

Vor 17 Tage
Austin Levreault
Austin Levreault

lol Regarding the index of coincidences.... but if you have everybody using the same enigma settings on a given day and the allies intercept all of them, it doesn't matter that each message is only 200 letters long because the allies have hundreds of messages.

Vor 17 Tage
Jeffery's Mom!!!
Jeffery's Mom!!!

ok I got 7 min in and I gave up

Vor 17 Tage
Wanderer
Wanderer

In my mind the only weakness of the enigma was that the letter punched in, would never be repeated through out the process. So not 1/26 be 1/25. and like you said, could be put against some traffic in the clear. If none of the letters corresponded but had similar composition, was likely a key.

Vor 17 Tage
George Chu
George Chu

This is also knowing the mechanical arrangement...

Vor 17 Tage
Rulovsky Pharaoh
Rulovsky Pharaoh

stop wasting paper, buy a whiteboard please

Vor 17 Tage

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