A Guide to Tank Ammo | Koala Explains: Tank Ammunition Types and their Differences

Armor Cast
Armor Cast

🅱️ E S H

Vor year
Gokan the Husky
Gokan the Husky

🅱 E S H

Vor Monat
Doofing Cookies
Doofing Cookies

🅱️esh

Vor Monat
AlexG3Z
AlexG3Z

haha 🅱E S H go boom

Vor 2 Monate
E
E

*_🅱️ E S H_*

Vor 2 Monate
Paul Smith
Paul Smith

Bravo! Well done sir. Great video very informative and entertaining.

Vor 2 Monate
BorisXanovavich
BorisXanovavich

you forgot APHEFSDSHSG (HS) Armor Piercing High Explosive Fin-Stabilised Discarding Sabot Hand-of-Stalin Guided (Hardened Stalinium)

Vor year
saucy innit
saucy innit

APHECBCCRATDSTF-FS Armor Piercing High Explosive Capped Ballistic Capped Composite Rigid Anti Tank Discarding Sabot Timed Fuze-Fin Stabilized

Vor 17 Tage
Razor Wolf
Razor Wolf

I read this and started to think Russianbadger

Vor 2 Monate
Roomba
Roomba

@Levelovixor The 2nd make a war thunder style icon aswell

Vor 3 Monate
Razvan Munteanu
Razvan Munteanu

average Russian tank shell

Vor 3 Monate
kippert
kippert

@Mark Tredway thanks

Vor 3 Monate
Roy Hsieh
Roy Hsieh

ancient: arrows centuries ago: cannon rounds now: darts never change: pay to win

Vor year
frosty goul
frosty goul

soon lasers

Vor 3 Monate
Stage Watcher
Stage Watcher

Technically, Roman artillery used darts, so it's like we've gone full circle. Ancients: Darts Medieval: Stones Renaissance: Iron balls Colonial: Explosive iron balls WWII: Steel slugs Cold War: Explosive steel slugs Modern: Darts

Vor 4 Monate
Chongjin Tang
Chongjin Tang

Stone age: stones Ancient age:stone javellin Medieval age:bow and arrow Black powder:musket First arm race:bolt action rifle Ww2:semi-auto rifle Modern age: AA12 full-auto shotgun

Vor 9 Monate
Nick_Steele
Nick_Steele

@germania empire yea but if they save up enough they can upgrade it to a supermonkey! I mean those do need support but are pretty nice

Vor 9 Monate
germania empire
germania empire

Dart? The designers of bullets have been playing too much balloon tower defense

Vor year
Luis Maiocchi
Luis Maiocchi

2:24 This is a misconception thanks to War Thunder but IRL, shrapnel shells are not APHE shells. Shrapnel shells are air burst munitions that are specifically an anti-personnel rounds. Think of it like canister shot, but you shoot the gun at the enemy and then the gun fires mid air, creating a cloud of bullets. Also, APCR rounds had a aluminum body but used a Tungsten core. This made them expensive and not widely used during WW2 or after.

Vor year
kickass1973
kickass1973

modern APFSDS are still made of tungsten or depleted uranium🙃

Vor 9 Tage
Windhelm Guard
Windhelm Guard

@Brian Ferguson not really a shotgun, as you don't shoot at the enemy, but over cover, where the shell detonates and rains shrapnel down onto hiding enemy forces. another use is to engage lightly armoured vehicles, anti tank guns and artillery batteries, which have little to no armour on top, making the shrapnel very effective at disabling the crew, without heavily damaging the equipment. you wouldn't really care enough about shooting your main gun at infantry to bother making and loading grape shot onto a tank, no sane infantry man would engage a tank without cover, which is much more easily penetrated by a machine gun.

Vor 2 Monate
Brian Ferguson
Brian Ferguson

Your telling me that SOMEONE ELSE already thought of turning a tank into a big fucking shotgun?

Vor 3 Monate
darugdawg
darugdawg

warthunder is not realistic.you dont need tnt to destroy a tank

Vor 3 Monate
Herr Haber
Herr Haber

@O-HO gameplay Tungsten projectiles were not really a thing for Germany in WW2. Before being allowed to shoot a round, you first need it in your inventory ;) A former French Navy EOD friend only had one 20mm AP round to show in his otherwise huge collection after his career so that says something.

Vor 9 Monate
Fireatank
Fireatank

Well done. As an ex tanker who was explaining tank ammo to a friend I looked it up and we enjoyed the concise explanation and graphics.

Vor year
20chocsaday
20chocsaday

@Kevin Smith Thank you.

Vor 2 Monate
Kevin Smith
Kevin Smith

@20chocsaday What you are speculating about is basically what a gun bore evacuator does! If you review the video and look carefully at most of the modern tanks main gun barrels you will see a can shaped bulge near the middle. It has ports into the barrel that captures (briefly) some of the gas, and vents it back milliseconds later back in towards the muzzle, creating a flow outward that vacuum's out remaining gases when the auto breach opens and ejects the powder case or cap. In Naval guns it's done by a blast of compressed air into the opened breech, seen as a small puff of smoke out after the blast. Running a positive air pressure blower into the turret helps also, along with automatic case ejection to get the hot smoking case outside ASAP! Yeah, it's not healthy to breath that crap, especially when shooting all day, for days, but it's a hellacious fun way to redecorate the landscape while burning off unwanted weeds, bushes, etc.

Vor 2 Monate
20chocsaday
20chocsaday

@Bruce Banner Just as gas-operated automatic machine guns use part of the discharge gas, would it be possible to use the gas to suck clean air out through the barrel providing you supply a source of clean air?

Vor 2 Monate
Deathbomb9
Deathbomb9

@Tall Troll under intense pressure and the heat it absorbs from the explosive and friction in it's short millisecond state it enters a state that is neither solid nor liquid but has properties of both. You will see a splatter effect at extended ranges with an amalgamation factor similar to heating all effected layers and the copper to a homogeneous state. The copper acts like a liquid at the extreme pressure it experiences when traveling at 9,000m/s. It is easier to get the copper to this semi-super critical states based on its properties as a metal. It's very conducive of many forms of energy and can quickly transfer that heat, to a nominal degree. It's simply the most effective metal for the cost as well as effective at punching through multiple times its mass and OAL of RHA. Its complicated at best to talk about because it has such a broad range of characteristics that apply. You can dumb it down and explain it to children, but when you get deep into the science of it theres so much to say that you could give a 2 or seminar on it and still not say or show everything that applies. It achieves super plastic flow, but to most thick syrup is still a liquid. They need stand off for maximum effect on target and that is set by the angle, length, and thickness of the cone and it requires a specific amount of power behind it.

Vor 9 Monate
Tall Troll
Tall Troll

@Deathbomb9 No, technically the copper does not melt. Applying sufficient force to a metal causes it to deform and flow in a very similar manner to a liquid as a superplastic jet. One of the reasons copper is commonly used in HEAT rounds is because it is quite soft, and therefore requires less force to deform, hence less explosive to get it to flow like that. You could do the same with tungsten, say, but holy crap you'd need a lot of explosive to get it to self forge. As something of an aside, I can forsee a possibility that later generations of HEAT rounds will in fact use some harder metal with a larger/more energetic charge in order to increase their penetration values

Vor 9 Monate
Jordan Anderson
Jordan Anderson

How did I miss Koala making this channel? It's everything I've ever wanted in one convenient place!

Vor year
ThommyYaya
ThommyYaya

It seems like 80% youtubers have thick scottish accents

Vor 3 Monate
Admin Admin
Admin Admin

He sounds like Mike Boyd

Vor year
Oojiflip
Oojiflip

"but you'll also hear them referred to as HEP" - I was like where 🅱️ESH

Vor year
Roomba
Roomba

@The lax from the space quote from Wikipedia "High explosive squash head (HESH) in British terminology, or high explosive plastic/plasticized (HEP) in American terminology"

Vor 3 Monate
Johngofett
Johngofett

@LessCommonKnowledge we on that 🅱esh sh## aw ya

Vor 3 Monate
Ran Dey
Ran Dey

HESH means High Explosive Squash Head.

Vor 3 Monate
LessCommonKnowledge
LessCommonKnowledge

We on that 🅱️ESH!

Vor 3 Monate
〔REDACTED 〕
〔REDACTED 〕

Bull-Explosive S!_# HESH

Vor 9 Monate
STHV
STHV

I would love to see some super slow motion footage of a HESH shell hitting a thick steel plate

Vor year
Razor Wolf
Razor Wolf

U mean 🅱️ESH right

Vor 2 Monate
Julius 85
Julius 85

@CrystalPyr0 I hate the fact that youtube adds ads everywhere because of this very reason

Vor year
CrystalPyr0
CrystalPyr0

@Julius 85 when the ad saves you 🤌

Vor year
NealCassady
NealCassady

@bla bla damn it, yes !

Vor year
bla bla
bla bla

@Julius 85 I hate you

Vor year
Jon Parker
Jon Parker

I love how much of this I've been able to glean from War Thunder over time. Even the history, watching APDS and HEATFS rounds come into play in higher rank vehicles as technology improved and became standard. It's given me such a great understanding of this stuff, enough to understand the real history I've seen since. One thing I didn't expect was APHE rounds being so ineffective. From playing War Thunder, you'd think they were god's gift to tankers all the way up to the invention of HEATFS. Almost every tank in the game before the Cold War era has APHE rounds which are incredibly effective at getting one-shot kills if aimed properly. It's kinda surprising to hear that in reality, they were passed pretty quickly in favor of heavier solid rounds.

Vor year
Alpha Nomad
Alpha Nomad

@Reahs i know right

Vor year
Reahs
Reahs

@Jon Parker Its not that bad when you take into account how large the game is

Vor year
Colonel Overkill
Colonel Overkill

In the videos of an air to air missile exploding you can see it blow and then turn into a ring then a funnel. That shows you the effected area of an explosive round, roughly speaking.

Vor year
Jon Parker
Jon Parker

@Armor Cast Ah, that makes sense. Yeah, I imagine that would make it considerably less effective in War Thunder. I kinda wish that was modeled correctly now though, would cut back on the dominance of APHE in most of Rank I-IV. Not like War Thunder has any shortage of physics problems to work out.

Vor year
Armor Cast
Armor Cast

The issue is that in War Thunder, APHE rounds detonate in a spherical pattern, able to travel BACKWARDS from the point of detonation - IRL, momentum still carries the explosive FORWARD in more of a cone shape, only slightly wider than that of a solid shot

Vor year
Daniel_F
Daniel_F

Well done. Concise, accurate and still basic enough for a beginner to understand without boring a veteran. Very glad I subscribed. Now you just need a video on how to know when you’re being Gaijined and how to counteract that curse. Perhaps a step by step guide on appeasing the hamsters?

Vor year
Captain-General Othinus
Captain-General Othinus

Would love to see it happen

Vor 2 Monate
Eli Kasinger
Eli Kasinger

Imagine being the loader in a challenger and the gunner/commander says "Load B E S H !"

Vor year
Typical Asian Guy
Typical Asian Guy

@Falcon_by_the_lake I’m glad you found that funny. Also just in case, I don’t mean it as an insult. Just an impulsive thought I had while reading your comment.

Vor 3 Monate
Falcon_by_the_lake
Falcon_by_the_lake

@Typical Asian Guy Oh, yeah, got that image. Thus, me having a laugh about it. Better that I do it here, and not as an actual tanker gunner-dude. Elsewise, lots of exercise when we return to base.

Vor 3 Monate
Typical Asian Guy
Typical Asian Guy

@Falcon_by_the_lake What I mean is that he’s calling you his bitch.

Vor 3 Monate
Falcon_by_the_lake
Falcon_by_the_lake

@Typical Asian Guy ...and there's no room for me to escape! 🤣

Vor 3 Monate
Typical Asian Guy
Typical Asian Guy

@Falcon_by_the_lake Your tank commander might have some feelings for you.

Vor 3 Monate
Serious_shooter
Serious_shooter

Good video, subbed. Short note on gyroscopic stabilisation (GS) though: longer round do not "respond negatively" to GS, but it is simply unfeasible to apply it. The sabot rounds were becoming longer and heavier, thus in need of much higher rotational speeds to stabilize them. This creates a few problems in itself: the extreme amounts of spin imparted on the projectile will create a lot of gyroscopic drift, and the rifling cannot be expected to survive for very long because of the extreme stresses. For these reasons it is more suitable to use fin stabilisation and a smooth bore gun. If a long spin stabilised projectile is not sufficiently spun it will tumble end over end, but it is not a product of the spin itself.

Vor year
Deathbomb9
Deathbomb9

I was on tanks for 7 years and learned from guys with cumulative experience in excess of probably 200years between then. Heat rounds push physics to the extreme. The insurgents in Iraq and the Taliban in Afghanistan had used this to great effect against armored vehicles using EFPs. The explosive force puts incredible pressure on the copper plate or cone, also compressing it into a single jet. The pressure alone is what causes the copper to actually liquefy and heat up. For a split second it is near its boiling point and will cut through the armor like a plasma jet. The tell is looking at the penetration and seeing the deposited copper. These also need a specific distance to be effective. If they are directly against the armor, no pen. Too far from it and the hot copper simply splatters on the surface like weld spatter. That's what the cages around vehicles and tanks are for and spaced armor as well. US troops in Iraq used 5gallon water cans over doors to completely negate EFPs before effective countermeasures were fielded. My MRAP had side armor and we still put a bunch of mess in and filled the space with full water bottles because of how effective water is at stopping anything and everything. It's non compressible unlike all other elements involved, and so it bleeds off an incredible amount of energy off any incoming projectiles or fragments.

Vor year
A Washburn
A Washburn

@Deathbomb9 the pressures are quite extreme but not beyond a critical point. Birhoff and others measured the detonation and collapse pressure of the cone to be about 30-50 GPa (over 4000 ksi) at which point the melting point of copper is about double its ambient melting point. If you keep going the melting point of copper (and other metals) has been measured to continue increasing past 500 GPa at which point it’s about 7000C. But yeah, I think we’re tracking towards the same idea from two different sides, good discussions.

Vor 11 Monate
Deathbomb9
Deathbomb9

@A Washburn you're right about flow not being a liquid state. Definitely not what I'm trying to convey haha. On a surface appearance it can look the same but what's happening is different. But I have to disagree about melting points just going up. To a point they will but I'm pretty sure after that point the temperature required starts to fall off. But at these same pressures most metals would flow as if they were a liquid. The instantaneous pressure and compression of the metal is extreme, I think we can agree there. I cant recall the pressures reached but they are definitely much higher than the point to which metals have a higher melting point. Mind you the pressures in the chamber of a gun can reach instantaneous levels of 55,000- over 120,000 PSI and that will cause a brass casing to have a small amount of plastic flow at the end of the case neck. And we are talking about more pressure than in a guns chamber and much more heat being introduced and more heat being created with compression. I'm not a metallurgist, so I cant go into the extreme details and I'm not sure if metals have a triple point. I'm not sure we could even get close to it. If you're curious on the bigger ones searchwords like "EFP" and "EFP damage" will get you started. There have been tests done with bigger, but those are of the secret kind and performed by military agencies to test armor packages to protect against that threat. I could also be wrong about exactly what pressures are produced and be misremembering some portions of things I've read. The bigger ones had taken guys legs of and caused severe burns as they did. What I've seen of battle damage has been consistent with the copper coming very close to a liquid state if not actually becoming a molten jet. I know what high velocity copper looks like when it hits steel. What I've seen has the characteristics of both punching through in a both plastic flow or taffy like state as well as partly being in a liquid state. So we can both be right and have observed the same event with different views and come out with a different explanation of the same events. I think we are on the same page, and just trying to convey our points in different ways. If I've repeated myself that's because I get a little off track haha.

Vor 11 Monate
A Washburn
A Washburn

@Deathbomb9 actually the opposite is true, the melting point of metals increases with pressure. I would push back a bit here, exceeding the flow stress of a material and melting are not the same thing. I don’t want to put words in your mouth or misinterpret what you’re trying to say so let me just make some general statements: a material acting in a plastic manner does not indicate a liquid state, solid material flow is carried out by the movement of crystalline defects and doesn’t require melting or a liquid like state. Now you keep bringing up a difference in the response of different sized charges, I’m not familiar with this being a factor so it definitely gives me something to start looking into.

Vor 11 Monate
Deathbomb9
Deathbomb9

@A Washburn on the DU I was simply expanding on the topic. As for the melting of a shape charge you know that under normal conditions the temperature needed to melt copper is constant. But under extreme pressure that temperature needed isnt as high. There can be a very surface layer that becomes very hot the moment of detonation of the explosives. But the heat cause by compression as well as that massive pressure is enough to bring the jet to a liquid state without it being at the temperature we expect to see for copper to melt. In shape charges under 6 inches the mechanism that typically causes portions of the jet to melt is pressure. With enough pressure copper will "flow" like its heated to a plastic like state. These pressures can be achieved with hand operated mechanical equipment like a bullet swaging press. Forces higher will push the copper past that plastic like state. In larger diameter shape charges with optimal shaping you'll end up with more of the jet reaching that liquified state and you'll have higher temperatures as well. Most testing is done in the less than 6 inches realm because the bigger ones are very dangerous. The M830 HEAT has a relatively short stand off and I believe the cone is a 3.5-4in diameter cone. But stand off for a 10-12inch cone is up to 6ft or more depending on the angle of the cone. And you need a good bit more explosives. I'd have to look around for the text and such where I've read about it and learned about it. Most the ranging info comes from accounts and reports from Iraq.

Vor 11 Monate
A Washburn
A Washburn

@Deathbomb9 I think you’re really overstretching my statement with regards to DU burning. I never said air can’t follow behind, I specifically said oxygen doesn’t have enough time to reach the interface during penetration. A point which you already addressed by your correction to mean the fragments behind the penetrator or even the residual penetrator following perforation of the target. I’d be curious to see a source for shaped charges reaching over the roughly 1100C needed to melt the copper. This is an area that has been researched fairly well, there are infrared spectroscopy measurements of jets in flight that put the jet temperatures in the 300-500C range, simulations which match those measurements except under conditions of extreme velocities, and recovered jets which metallurgically showed only about 10% of the jets volume to have melted.

Vor 11 Monate
Wild Turkey
Wild Turkey

The big reason behind the switch from rifle to smoothbore is that as projectile velocity passes a certain point the gasses start to erode the rifling which means that after a limited number of rounds the gun begins to lose accuracy. This was discovered during testing of the new sabot for the 105mm rifle in the M60A3. To prevent the spin of the rifling causing the round to curve like a golf ball at longer ranges they installed ball bearings in the sabot of the round so that the penetrator would rely on the fins to stabilize it. In testing the new sabot could destroy the rifling in the barrel in one or two days of heavy combat. This led to the adoption of the smoothbore gun in the Abrams which allows much higher muzzle velocities.

Vor year
Mistérios Gloriosos
Mistérios Gloriosos

*Well done. Concise, accurate and still basic enough for a beginner to understand without boring a veteran. Very glad I subscribed*

Vor year
Hedge Earthridge
Hedge Earthridge

To add to this, Caps were really needed to essentially be padding. For very hard steel or especially tungsten carbide shells, the impact on the armor (especially high-hardness armor) would shatter the shell like glass, because of the brittleness that accompanies hardness. So the cap gives a soft metal cushion to reduce the stresses on the shell, and it does a fantastic job of preventing shattering, from all the simulations I've seen.

Vor 6 Monate
1 1
1 1

If the British army upgraded the Challengers main gun to a smooth bore gun. Do you think it would be feasible to develop a fin stabilised HESH round ( FSHESH round) ?

Vor year
Felix The Cat
Felix The Cat

@Komrade Arti Not true.. the 80lb HESH warhead on the Malkara was capable of taking off the turret even if it did not detonate..!

Vor 8 Monate
Tunk_2Ton
Tunk_2Ton

@Armor Cast what if the gasses from firing the round would spin it? like including some channels in the round it self or something? would probably not work but oh well

Vor 10 Monate
Jonah.H
Jonah.H

@Armor Cast wouldn't it be possible to develop a fin type that utilized centrifugal force once the curved fins are deployed to eject then instead of folding back in? it might be a bit similar to a discarding sabot round

Vor year
Armor Cast
Armor Cast

@Komrade Arti that source actually demonstrates exactly why it wouldn’t - installing fins that INDUCE a spin rather than stopping it would produce a massive amount of both drag, and torque. The drag is okay, if not ideal, because HESH is a CE round and is already a low velocity type anyway, but the torque will make it VERY inaccurate at medium to long ranges

Vor year
Useless
Useless

@Armor Cast What if we a go a bit further and develop tank-launched 🅱️ESH ATGM? There are HE warheads for pretty much every modern ATGM and I know some of them tend to spin.

Vor year
S Harris
S Harris

Awesome video. Most presentations only cover 5 to 7 main types and are no where near as comprehensive. Good work! I question the part about HEAT projectiles not liquefying because of not achieving the metal’s melting point. Perhaps this temperature would not be sufficient in normal conditions, but you have to factor in the extreme pressure caused by the explosive and the resulting kinetic energy it imparts. Do you have a reference for this? It is possible that the core remains a highly plastic solid, but the fact that the initial material must be surrounded by explosive in order to achieve the pressure required does make me wonder.

Vor year
Minmus
Minmus

APHE in real life: disappointing in retrospect, advantages over regular AP minor if better at all. APHE in War Thunder: literally satan.

Vor year
Monolit Woods
Monolit Woods

Imagine a Abrams or T-72 gun(if it were rifled) firing a basic solid slug round, I wonder how it would perform))

Vor year
News_Internationale
News_Internationale

@ErikThorvald No, modern barrels are really strong. Really it probably wouldn't be drastically different than the 122 of the IS-2, obviously though without the benefits of rifling.

Vor year
ErikThorvald
ErikThorvald

@Accept yes heat fs is a lot less dense of a projectile then a solid steel slug would be.

Vor year
Accept
Accept

@ErikThorvald modern tanks don’t only shoot apfsds they carry programmable HE and HEATFS

Vor year
ErikThorvald
ErikThorvald

the powder charge would need to be reduced or the barrel would blow up. modern tank guns are meant for firing light weight high velocity rounds if you fire solid steel slugs the round wouldn't leave the barrel fast enough and create overpressure due to the fast burning powder needed for sabot and heat rounds.

Vor year
Soppo Toppo
Soppo Toppo

Basically think of the M103 120mm gun.

Vor year
E'lena the TransMiqo'te
E'lena the TransMiqo'te

One thing, I remember reading that the Challenger 3 (semi next gen upgrade for Challenger 2 tanks) is switching to the Smoothbore barrel, so globally there will be even less fleets able to use HESH. Probably won't be phased out like some of the shells mentioned for a decade or two but.... If anyone has more info or will correct me please advise.

Vor year
branden green
branden green

"sad 🅱️ E S H noises"

Vor 10 Monate
Willie Wilson
Willie Wilson

Smart rounds and tech allow it's use

Vor year
Essex 37
Essex 37

I wonder if some boozed-up engineer cooked up a HESH shell that self-rotates to work with smooth-bore guns.

Vor Monat
Ab Bc
Ab Bc

Wasn't most mbt guns smoothbore at the point of inventing APFSDS? I thought fins were added just to stabilize APDS rounds in flight

Vor year
Armor Cast
Armor Cast

Not in NATO service - the Russians started using smoothbore guns on the T-62, around the same time APFSDS became popular, but the primary gun on NATO tanks was still the L7/M68 gun used on the Centurions, Leopard 1 series, M60 and early M1 Abrams variants, Merkava, and variations of it could be found on the Italian OF-40 or French AMX-30

Vor year
Prjndigo
Prjndigo

0:11:14 "these shape charged rounds are also easily defeated by adding energy to the high energy copper jet most commonly through explosive armor which can not only disrupt the shape of the shaped charge but also further heat the copper jet into a plasma which no longer has the force and consistency necessary to erode through armor" eg the charged grid anti-RPG system that literally vaporizes the copper jet by simply heating it further.

Vor year
Felix The Cat
Felix The Cat

Eh No... just NO!

Vor 8 Monate
Luciano Vasco
Luciano Vasco

Olá, é um prazer assistir seus vídeos, você é muito bom . Queria tirar uma dúvida. Como um projétil explosivo não explode dentro do cano do próprio canhão, uma vez que ele sofre uma enorme força g?

Vor year
Giacomo Galli
Giacomo Galli

Well detailed, I was surprised to learn why smoothbore cannons became the standard

Vor year
Makinnak
Makinnak

Another fun gimmick round is canister rounds (still used today) basically 1100 tungsten or steel ball bearings fired out similar to buck shot. At roughly 300 yards you have a wall of balls 100 feet across. Used as anti-personel round. These saw used in Iraq against insurgents inside cities where they tend to bunch up in groups.

Vor year
Killerphive
Killerphive

The wasted energy also applies to armor piercing rounds, so if it’s kinetic energy is spend spinning if it comes out of a rifled gun, vs if has no spin and all of its force is concentrated on the horizontal plane.

Vor year
SAM BRICKELL
SAM BRICKELL

This was very informative! Great job!

Vor year
Lars
Lars

Well the recently announced Challenger 3 will have a smoothebore gun as well. A little sidenote: Tanks developed early in the cold war like the Leopard 1 or AMX 30 had very little armor purely because at the time HEAT ammunition was so prominent and easily went through a lot of steel that the idea was to make the tanks as light and fast as possible so they wont be hit in the first place.

Vor 10 Monate
Thomas Glessner
Thomas Glessner

Great video. Well presented and illustrated. Thank you.

Vor 11 Monate
Cheetah Man
Cheetah Man

I have only seen these tank rounds in a game called War Thunder. Its nice to see how they worked in real life.

Vor year
its_jonathan_0
its_jonathan_0

the holy 🅱️ E S H of antioch

Vor year
Talltale
Talltale

There is overlap between HE and APHE. Some “HE” still had a good amount of kinetic penetration

Vor year
O-HO gameplay
O-HO gameplay

In theory yes. Kinetic penetration is mass*velocity (the actual shape and the materials also matter, but it is just a noversiplified version). So some higher velocity HE could have ,ore penetration, but they have a softer, and thinner frontal "cap", that cant penetrate mauch. plus the fuse will detonate upon impact. Whta you are reffering to is SAP, or SAPHE. It is basically an AHPE with thinner cap in the front than an actual APHE, and a different fuse, that detonates later than a nprmal HE, but sooner that APHE. Alos has the explosive mass between HE and APHE. Alos SAP mostly used on ships. As i know only a few tanks used it, and they were mostly prototype ones, like the SU-100Y (1-2 built and lost at stalingrad if i am correct), it's 130mm B-13 gun had HE and SAP (and other types like smoke, gas, etc)

Vor year
Friday Californiaa
Friday Californiaa

Thumbs down : you never mentioned the gold/premium shells ! 😂 They are a must have in modern -gaming- wars

Vor year
JF B
JF B

You should be an audiobook narrator, i would buy them all! Great voice! Thanks for learning me about tank (rounds)

Vor 2 Monate
Defus
Defus

Thank you, Wargaming, for putting only AP, APCR, HE, HESH and HEAT in World of Tanks.

Vor year
R Fletch
R Fletch

Thanks for the vid. I could never explain to a war gaming friend how a HEAT round that never actually penetrated kills the crew (spalling). That was a 152mm heat round! From a M-551a1 Sheridan. That hit a Tiger II at a spot with 203mm of armor. We're fine. Come out of the woodline.

Vor year
Simon Nachreiner
Simon Nachreiner

Something I wanted to bring up Flak cannons weren’t meant to shoot down aircraft outright. The flak was intended to rip up with wings of aircraft causing drag in flight to make the plane drop from formation and become easy prey for fighter planes. Outright downing was too inconsistent to become part of military doctrine until proximity rounds entered the fray.

Vor year
Colonel Overkill
Colonel Overkill

Another major limitation of HESH/HEP is velocity. If they hit faster than 750 m/s the plastic explosive is spread too far and thin to have sufficient concentration for adequate armor penetration. This came from a report on the M41 Walker Bulldog from US Army Ord. I dont remember the exact source but can try to dig it out of anyone cares or needs it. That seems to be the biggest reason the US abandoned the shell even in rifled guns as other shells were 50% higher velocity from the same gun and the aiming and technical challenges werent worth the advantages they brought.

Vor year
nick 450
nick 450

proximnity fuse was awesome its like a mini radar made strong enough to survive being fired with like vacum tubes. they had to make sure it didn't activate during travel so the switch to start it activates when they were spun reely fast from the rifeling. these fuses were also used in artilery to make airbust rounds as the radar can bounce off the ground too not just planes, so they didn't need to do the math to make timers work for airburst.

Vor 3 Monate
Han Solo
Han Solo

6:04 Can we appreciate the dynamic response of the stabilizing system in this WW2 era MBT? When T-62 became a mature evolution of the T-55 around 1970 it wasn't even close to this level of keeping the gun on target while moving with significant cross-country speed. 7:25 Matsimus disagree but I still look at Chally 2 as a slow tank only at this up-armoring package and additional war-ready equippment. Without all of this it does not look bad compared to the 760HP in T-72

Vor 10 Monate
Ser Garlan Tyrell
Ser Garlan Tyrell

A lighter steel jacket and a much heavier and denser steel core? I think the word you're looking for is "metal" not steel. Even though the strength, hardness etc of steel can change greatly depending on its alloying and heat treatment, the density doesn't change much at all... APCR rounds, so I understand, usually had aluminium jackets, not steel. Steel was used for the core of some but something like tungsten is better.

Vor year
Ye4rZero
Ye4rZero

This is the most tank nerds I've ever seen in a comment section. There's custom acronyms flying around here like ordinance in an actual battle.

Vor year
swag man
swag man

all that i see is 🅱️ESH

Vor 9 Monate
TheBasicMelon
TheBasicMelon

Well we love tanks!

Vor year
Ivan Stepanovic
Ivan Stepanovic

HESH is easily defeated by spaced/slat and composite armor. Composite armor often contains cavities or rubber which will decrease or completely remove the effect of HESH. Another thing is where you actually hit the target... Also, most modern MBTs have kevlar layer on the inside of the tank which greatly reduces spalling.

Vor year
ravener
ravener

a quick reminder that normalisation is a myth and doesent happen with capped AP. the efect of the cap has to do with not shattering the projectile, and reducing deflection. the reduced deflection is not the same as normalisation since the round is at no point getting tilted down, its just starting the cut into the armour a bit before the pointed hardened penetrator contacts the plate.

Vor year
Matthew Andrews
Matthew Andrews

I want to see how much damage a 16in sabot round could do. Also the range it could do it at.

Vor 10 Monate
Gemilang AS
Gemilang AS

great content! If you don't mind, may I ask the sources you used for this content? thanks

Vor year
Chilled
Chilled

The moment I saw Koala in the title giving explanation on tank shells, I was waiting patiently whilst gaining knowledge until BESH was mentioned and now I’m satisfied

Vor 9 Monate
Andres Korberg
Andres Korberg

Excellent vid! Thank You! Could you please-please-please make a video about artillery. For simple human being as me, it is beyond comperhension, how you could even hit anything beyond your line of sight. Sure, there were/are those ppl that observe result and relay the information. But still- mindboggling, could you actually make a hit whith an artillery piece that moves violently after each shot… So presicion and calibration are not a thing? And then I have heard about some new-age munitions that will direct themselves to target… How they know how target looks like? How much can they change the trajectory? And - of course, the ammunition is also quite interesting. Classic case of battle of the Somme whete Brits used wrog ammo that did not destroy barbed wire… Hope there is a topic you could explore and explain to us :)

Vor 4 Monate
Armor Cast
Armor Cast

Definitely sounds like something worth exploring!

Vor 4 Monate
Cedric Pump
Cedric Pump

Great summary. I have missed a bit the effect of spaced composit armor and their effect on APDS rounds getting longer to not tumble before impact. Some illustrating images for spaced armor and cages such as on the striker APCs would have been great.

Vor year
Deez Boyeed
Deez Boyeed

@mike19k original spaced armour aka side skirts were made to stop anti tank rifles weirdly.

Vor 4 Monate
mike19k
mike19k

Spaced armor was made to defeat the HEP rounds. This is why almost every armed forces out side of the UK went smooth bore, as they become very niche rounds.

Vor year
R Johnson
R Johnson

In the Carl Gustaf, the shaped charge projectile has two free-spinning metal rings on the outside. As the projectile goes down the barrel, the rings rotate with the rifling, but as they are free spinning the spin isn't transferred to the projectile. That way you can shoot a shaped charge from a rifled barrel without the disadvantages presented in the video.

Vor year
Fireatank
Fireatank

@R Johnson sorry dude, I don't get the refrence.

Vor year
R Johnson
R Johnson

@Fireatank Tbot detected.

Vor year
Fireatank
Fireatank

Just curious, weopand aside, how are you all holding up, against this current Biden guy??? Yes I know it's embarrassing to have these Muppets pretending to be Leaders, look at what we have in Canada.

Vor year
R Johnson
R Johnson

​@Fireatank True. Though airburst is included in all HE-shells for the Carl-G, except for anti-tank. There are no contact-fuse-only fragmentation shells for it.

Vor year
Fireatank
Fireatank

@R Johnson thanx, got that part of it, we only used heat when u was using them, not they have RAP rounds too. Just didn't know if Canada has the full range of munitions available. Some pencil pusher in the government probably said no.

Vor year
Bren Crun
Bren Crun

I'd like a much more in-depth video on this subject. This one was just a brief overview but piqued my interest.

Vor year
johnfromdownunder.
johnfromdownunder.

Thank you for this ✌️this is exactly the things I wonder about 😊😊😊

Vor year
John Taylor
John Taylor

Did you miss squeeze-bore hyper-velocity rounds that use depleted uranium cores for penetration?

Vor year
PETERVONFROSTER
PETERVONFROSTER

im into that, so i knew it already, but you have a very simple and fast way to explain them!

Vor 3 Monate
Marko Vuorma
Marko Vuorma

French did make 105mm Heat shell for their Amx-30 series that could be fired through a rifled gun, with none of the aforementioned negative effects. Later They also discarded the use of rifled guns for economical and practical logistical reasons.

Vor year
Person 0-0
Person 0-0

Other shells: chemical reactions that result in the destruction of enemy vehicle AP shells: big boolet

Vor year
Cheese Barber
Cheese Barber

these videos are awsome keep up the good work

Vor year
Fireatank
Fireatank

Explain well enough for me to show a rookie buddy, about tank ammo. Yes there may be some things off, and no there are others and name discrepancies, but it explains enough and the graphics are good... so all in all 👍

Vor year
Joe Kurtz
Joe Kurtz

Handled 120mm HEAT casings during mfg. Very dense & heavier, compared to the other steels used in 105 or 155mm. Not glowing 30yrs later. But at high velocity, would Not want to be on recieving end.

Vor year
Emanuel
Emanuel

A few times you mention rounds being ”aerodynamic”, once even saying a flat front causing more drag. If you study fluid dynamics I believe you will find that to be a rather bad explanation of the changing shape. Would be interesting to know what the actual reasons were (which obviously may still include aerodynic effects, of course).

Vor 9 Monate
Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx

There is one Thing missing on the Capped AP Rounds. The Slug under the Cap is realy Hard Metal, so quite brittle , that Trends to simply crack on Initial impact. So the soft Metal Cap is There to soften These Initial impact force. Drachinifiel Has that realy good explained in his Video about Naval Gun Rounds

Vor year
Moises Jimenez
Moises Jimenez

Good now I’m going tot use this abundantly useful knowledge into aid me in War Thunder

Vor year
AGermanGoose
AGermanGoose

Could you put the rifling on the hesh round itself? Similarly to rifled shotgun slugs?

Vor year
FriesingCold _
FriesingCold _

It’s a shame you didn’t mention the French heat rounds.

Vor year
deruebermolch
deruebermolch

@Komrade Arti the French round had the same penetration as the heat FS but was way more accurate over distance.

Vor year
Colonel Overkill
Colonel Overkill

@Komrade Arti I was meaning from a technical point compared to practicality. Yes that is a great way to fit more stable HEAT projectiles......or you could slap a few SS.11 missiles on the turret as well. Practically speaking training and small engagements will make the missile a better choice but over time the shell becomes better with missile expenditure. Honestly I view this weapon system as a technically ingenious system but still consider the HEP/sabot only ammo for rifles with adding 4 pack ATGM the better solution if needed.

Vor year
Colonel Overkill
Colonel Overkill

Never heard of em before but thats ingenious.

Vor year
Colonel Overkill
Colonel Overkill

Is there a fundamental operational difference in them compared to other HEAT effect weapons? Im now curious if you are serious or trolling. I have seen the French SS.11 missiles fired and they lit up a few refit Walker Bulldogs, and while that is no real accomplishment for any ATGM I didnt notice anything particularly special about them.

Vor year
Lapantouflemagic0
Lapantouflemagic0

that was interesting but i came wonderding what good are telescoped rounds for 😅

Vor Monat
Coom Gremlin
Coom Gremlin

I wonder if on the challenger 3, their still going to try to find a way to use HESH or if their going to completely convert to using NATO standard ammunition.

Vor year
Armor Cast
Armor Cast

Idea is to replace HESH with smart ammunition types that can do its job without the drawback of a rifled gun

Vor year
Jonathan Fostier
Jonathan Fostier

3:01 with subtitles, this mixture of TNT and amity makes the shells as powerful as nuclear bombs

Vor year
Phoenix Fire
Phoenix Fire

Fun fact, the challenger 3 has a smooth bore gun now too

Vor year
Petigp
Petigp

Smoothbore cannons can launch rockets/missles. Like the "9K112 Kobra" missle.

Vor year
Bruni
Bruni

If HEP requires spin and most tanks are going with smoothbore cannons instead of large bore rifles will we ever see HEP with fins to impart the spin?

Vor year
mike19k
mike19k

Why, HEP is not a very useful round. I spent a decade in tanks, never once saw a HEP round. Every vehicle larger than a HUMMER was built to take minimul damage from them. According to what we were taught they are only good against concrete bunker (some thing that you do not really see much of today).

Vor year
Forever Pink F.
Forever Pink F.

Very good and informative.

Vor year
Crist San
Crist San

Imagine someone made a hunter tip arrowhead round and gone hunting with the tank.

Vor year
Superbrain
Superbrain

there are a few more Armor Types that would be interestening to cover Britain where working on PISH shells (Penetration Intelligent Sqash Head) but gave up on it since it where a dead end Russia developed a Tripple charge HEAT Shell to lower the effectiveness of NERA (3BK31) Rheinmetall offers PELE Shells for calibers between 30mm up to 120mm (This one is quite interestening) There are probably even more, but overall its a good video.

Vor year
Harold, the Ambitious Sheep
Harold, the Ambitious Sheep

Best explanation I've seen yet!

Vor 9 Monate
Pieter Visser
Pieter Visser

On Rifled gun barrels, most tanks have a smooth bore gun, I only know of the British still using rifled gun barrels. Edit, you mentioned that at the end of the video

Vor year
Terry Warner
Terry Warner

@7:38 notice the driver has left the hazard lights On. This is courtesy to warn passersby of the likelihood of big loud boom noises, revving engines, spinning tracks, flying mud, ejected shell casings, and other effects of war.

Vor year
nicholas ciraulo
nicholas ciraulo

i was an 11e during vietnam, our round of choice was canister!

Vor year
Barry Lucas
Barry Lucas

Wonderful episode, subscribed

Vor year
Daenerys Targaryen
Daenerys Targaryen

Very informing excellent work💯🔥🔥🔥 👍💥💥

Vor year
It’s Mr Lone Wolf
It’s Mr Lone Wolf

9:38 did that tanks middle smoke bomb fail? The 1 out of all of them that you’d hope would go off since it’s covering what he shot at lol!

Vor year
Reahs
Reahs

@eamonia The canister failed to explode or else they would not have one loaded there. You can see one canister fly out and just land on the ground

Vor year
eamonia
eamonia

There isn't one. Just in case they need to maintain visual contact and fire additional rounds on the primary target while avoiding direct opportunity for alternate possible targets to accurately respond.

Vor year
HAND FUN!
HAND FUN!

Instead of a standoff probe, why not use a tandem round with a KE r ound in place of the probe, followed by a double shaped charge?

Vor year
Julian Thursky-Moore
Julian Thursky-Moore

3:36 imagine those against a formation of bombers...

Vor year
Goochu
Goochu

Whoever was the loader on the centurion shooting earlier is a bloody legend loading evry few seconds

Vor year
Michael Curl
Michael Curl

I was wondering the same thing. Former tanker 1st Battalion 35th Armor 1st Armored Division, C Company 3rd Platoon M60A1 Erlangen Germany 1975-1978

Vor 2 Monate
Octavian Popa
Octavian Popa

Very nice video lineup...so nice that I've just subscribed. Cheers bud

Vor year
TiredAlpaca
TiredAlpaca

I can't wait to use this knowledge in my War thunder exam

Vor 3 Monate
Christopher Noel
Christopher Noel

This video mentioned hardened steel cores, but it didn't go into penetrator materials, such as depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten (W). DU rounds are particularly interesting, because they are pyrophoric. While DU rounds are still in limited use, they have been phased out due to concerns over the radiological and chemical toxicity of uranium in the surroundings, endangering personnel and civilians in the area.

Vor year
thatchris
thatchris

Do you think they'd ever try make HESH-FS?

Vor 10 Monate
Daniel Woolliscroft
Daniel Woolliscroft

I was hooked as soon as i saw the Churchill VIIs xDD 😁😁😁 loved the video!! As a novice wwii buff this was so very helpful!

Vor year
peter tripp
peter tripp

glad he finally got to the HESH. also not much on anti-personnel rounds

Vor year
mike19k
mike19k

Why? It is the most useless round covered. Today only really useful against concrete bunker (and who still uses those?) even our light APC's have protection against the spalling fro the HEP round.

Vor year
Washman 1000
Washman 1000

Kick arse. This was a great video. Thanks for sharing your knowledge.

Vor year
Falcon_by_the_lake
Falcon_by_the_lake

Came here thinking about _Halo: C.E._ and how the Sniper Rifle fires the rounds it does. Now I have some real science behind why real tanks need 'em, plus several new bits of info. Surely, this will help me in my fan fiction of said franchise, so thank you.

Vor year
boxx
boxx

i advise people to look at to look up armor penetration simulation as it shows how the shell penetrates armor, for example how capped and non-capped projectiles perform against angled armor

Vor Monat
Josh Vega
Josh Vega

8:34-8:59 I’m pretty sure in building implosion the charges are just like this

Vor year
• • •
• • •

6:13 when you have an ace loader Seriously tho the footage actually looks slowed down a bit. Was this like some sort of autoloader experiment?

Vor year
Hades
Hades

The m1 abrams had a recorded reload time of less than 3 seconds during the battle of 73 easting. If your loader is fresh and has a round in his arms ready to go, loading times drastically decrease. Gaijin just doesn’t bother to model this

Vor year
Norwegian_NoiseMaker
Norwegian_NoiseMaker

I think a key feature of most British tanks was their fast-firing ability although I'm not sure.

Vor year
Jack Schoonover
Jack Schoonover

.

Vor year
Hunk
Hunk

Very informative. Sub earned.

Vor year
Nebosvod gonzalez
Nebosvod gonzalez

Fantastic Video i have watched many Vids about Tank Rounds one of the Best.

Vor year
Armor Cast
Armor Cast

Thank you my friend, always means a tonne to get comments like this!

Vor year
Truthbomb
Truthbomb

Did you not do a video on chally 3 getting a smooth bore main armament? If that's the case then I guess UK armoured doctrine will be tactics without HESH

Vor year
Irwain Nornossa
Irwain Nornossa

Just wait for railguns. Steel rod with wolframium tip, dart-shaped, purely kinetical penetration, even of sloped armor. And then someone invents magnetic deflectors.

Vor 8 Tage

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