3 Perplexing Physics Problems

  • Am Vor 2 years

    VeritasiumVeritasium

    Why does shaken soda explode? Does ice melt first in fresh or salt water?
    Thank you Squarespace for sponsoring this video. Go to squarespace.com to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain using code: VERITASIUM

    This video features experiments that have been shown to me by science teachers over the years. Does ice melt fast in salt water or fresh water was an experiment introduced to me at the Utah Science Teachers' conference. The ring of metal over a chain demo came from a teachers event in Florida. The idea shaking a carbonated drink increases pressure came from an email.

    Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for building the pressure gauge.

    Links to literature are below:
    Victims of the pop bottle, by Ted Willhoft. New Scientist, 21 August 1986 p.28

    Carbonation speculation
    The Physics Teacher 30, 173 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343501

    Agitation solution
    The Physics Teacher 30, 325 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343556

    Filmed by Cristian Carretero, Jordan Schnabel, Jonny Hyman, and Raquel Nuno

    Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Quietly Tense" "Mind Shift" "Observations"

Killbayne
Killbayne

Imagine giving your friend a sip of soda and he just goes "ahhh, non-equilibrium beverage"

Vor year
Aryl Master
Aryl Master

I laughed so fu**ing loudly when he said it 🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣

Vor 9 Tage
Windows XP memes and stuff lol
Windows XP memes and stuff lol

@Shaun Diz it can reach equilibrium with the air and CO2 inside the bottle, need more specification.

Vor Monat
Ashwin Karkala Hegde
Ashwin Karkala Hegde

I would expect nothing less from anyone who understands physics

Vor Monat
SledgeBear
SledgeBear

im going to do this now

Vor Monat
Faik_xD EDITZ
Faik_xD EDITZ

My friend is not derek

Vor 2 Monate
GreatSpaceGoat
GreatSpaceGoat

I have a pretty big physics problem that has perplexed me my whole life. The closest supermarket from where I live is 500 meters (roughly) and it takes me 12 minutes to walk there and back at a walking speed of 5 kph (3 mph). The problem is it has taken my father 18 years to make this trip and I want to know how this strange phenomenon has occurred.

Vor 2 Monate
Kim van Zyl
Kim van Zyl

maybe he turned left instead of right.... and took the long way around.... 🙃

Vor 18 Stunden
Raantas
Raantas

Exception

Vor 2 Tage
A.J. Aranyosi
A.J. Aranyosi

Your father, being older than you at the time, moved much faster. Thanks to special relativity, this has turned a five-minute trip for him into a lifetime for you. Now that you're older, you should be fast enough to catch him during the return voyage. Run, run now, and share that pack of cigarettes with your absent father!

Vor 22 Tage
Zuconde
Zuconde

This is known as the "Fathleave's effect" where someone's father/father figure has a prediction and if their prediction doesn't come true, they will excuse themselves to get something from the store that you definitely have and come back with a 26% chance of return, chances are increased when something even more "impressive" happens to you, ie. winning the lottery, being a celebrity/well known person, and graduating at the most prestigious school, however, studies have found that the chances increase by 9%-37%, if the "impressive" things are stacked, the chances of the "father" coming back is ALMOST 100% coming back, in exact it is 97.6046% chance of coming back

Vor 27 Tage
Pat Glass
Pat Glass

When I was a kid, I discovered that you could stand up a straw in a glass of soda pop and miraculously, soda would come out of the top of the straw slowly like a tiny fountain. Back in those says, the straws were all paper. You have shown me the answer to this phenomena and I thank you.

Vor 9 Monate
Max Mustermann
Max Mustermann

Not entirely. When you put a straw into any liquid the liquid is pulled upwards into the straw. That is called capillareffect, a combination of adhesion and cohesion counteracting ambient air pressure. The smaller the straw the higher the liquid will be pulled. That effect is used by trees and other plants to bring water from the root up to the top which can go up to 650ft (200m). The 'fountain' is the result of in the soda dissolved carbon dioxide being released within the straw because of the rough surface of the paper straw.

Vor 19 Tage
pronoe
pronoe

I've learned the "flicking the bottle/can" trick a while ago like 10-15+ years ago and only learned today why that works. Thanks a lot.

Vor 9 Monate
Moderate- Look it up
Moderate- Look it up

One of the only things I still remember from high school physics...shaking the bottle doesn't increase the pressure, it allows the gas to more easily separate from the liquid.

Vor 4 Monate
Traee
Traee

Imagine writing a paper that can be disproven by attaching a pressure gage to the bottle

Vor year
Tom Jones
Tom Jones

A small air filled balloon in the bottle would have been good enough to disprove the paper.

Vor 11 Stunden
Markus Ketonen
Markus Ketonen

@LightningMrBolt Wikipedia & Merriam-webster dictionary: "Gage is a variant spelling of the word gauge"

Vor 6 Tage
LightningMrBolt
LightningMrBolt

Gauge*

Vor 8 Tage
Bern
Bern

@Rafael Costa it's gauge. gage is a word but the meaning is very different. Pressure gauge is the correct term.

Vor 25 Tage
Bern
Bern

@Sam Sam well other scientists and probably even undergrads came forward immediately to say he's wrong.

Vor 25 Tage
MischievousOne
MischievousOne

The slow-mo audio of the ring falling down the chain has to be one of the most satisfying sounds I've heard

Vor 3 Monate
ItMeRagnarok
ItMeRagnarok

slow motion audio is normally dubbed because the real audio is trash

Vor 23 Tage
Nicole Wreyford
Nicole Wreyford

I think it would be cool to see how the results of the ice experiment varies when you use a fresh water ice cube in the fresh water glass and a salt water ice cube in the salt water glass. You can also test using salt water cubes in both glasses and compare all the combinations. Very nice video.

Vor 2 Monate
Christopher Sennett
Christopher Sennett

When looking at the salt water glass (around time index 6:37), if you look carefully, you can see a difference in the layers between the fresh water from the ice cube, and the salt water that the ice cube is floating in.

Vor 9 Monate
Jadon Nelson
Jadon Nelson

I was hoping he'd mention how salt melts ice on roads by lowering the specific heat and therefore making the water melt at lower temperatures, which IS why he mentioned that the salt warmed the water just by a little when he put it in the glass of water

Vor Monat
Isak Jones
Isak Jones

That's how I've always dealt with carbonation, flick the walls of the bottle or can before opening. Everyone always thinks it's amazing, never knew why it worked but now I do

Vor year
Mac C.
Mac C.

Or, just open it slowly. Let a bit of the air out. You can open a can slowly, too. You'll hear the gas escape, then finish cracking it open, even if you shake it up.

Vor 28 Tage
obetta official
obetta official

Or just open it slowly

Vor 2 Monate
AnarexicSumo
AnarexicSumo

@KillerKinkstar Because then they'd be giving away billions of straws when straws aren't even that big of a contributor to waste. Also metal straws create a dipole on the tongue which causes an unpleasant sensation.

Vor 3 Monate
Caters Carrots
Caters Carrots

I've always just let it rest for a while and then open it slowly, so that there's just a small hole for the gas to escape out of. Granted, it doesn't work that well for cans that have been dropped, but for a bottle, I can easily close it back up if the liquid is rising up in just enough time to not have any liquid leaking out and then, I just let it rest, and again, open it slowly. And with this second opening, there's usually been enough pressure driven off, that I can continue to slowly open the bottle, and no soda explosion.

Vor 3 Monate
SquidikaST
SquidikaST

I actually noticed the flicking was getting rid of the bubble on the wall of the plastic bottle and that must have something to do with prevent overflow when opening it, but i don't know why exactly and was never bother to look into it. Well now i know why.

Vor 3 Monate
marek klemes
marek klemes

Similar to the ring latching on the chain, an inverse kind of trick is to pull off any elastic from a large number of them looped around the same stick. Pull on your chosen one away from the stick, then pull the loop over the top of the stick and you will liberate only your chosen elastic while leaving the others on the stick, (instead of having to pull off all the ones above it or something equally messy).

Vor 8 Monate
Fenty Staphlebrow
Fenty Staphlebrow

The pressure goes up a small amount, it's just that the gauge you use can't detect it. You can feel the pressure difference in the rigidity of the bottle after shaking it.

Vor 3 Monate
Naro Naroyan
Naro Naroyan

It would be nice to see a video about; compressed springs put into acid, and to explain as to where the stored energy goes to when the spring is no more.

Vor 3 Monate
Christian Roed
Christian Roed

Great videos, thanks. Have you tried the problem where you have a ruler or piece of wood, support it on a finger at each end of the ruler, then move your fingers towards each other. They always meet in the middle. Can you figure it out?

Vor 2 Monate
Perplexeus
Perplexeus

He went back to his roots, challenging wide spread science myths

Vor 2 years
Tortinwall
Tortinwall

Myths perhaps but hardly widespread. I had never heard of any of them.

Vor 3 Monate
ElectricBlueSwirl
ElectricBlueSwirl

@angry potato It didn't melt faster, it just became clear because the trapped air got out. If you look closely, you see that the one in salt is bigger, it's just less visible because it became clearer.

Vor 3 Monate
Daniel Jeremiah
Daniel Jeremiah

@angry potato No it didn’t. It only got transparent

Vor 5 Monate
MAISOK SOKA
MAISOK SOKA

Exactly why channel like these are awesome !! We tend to know more about complex phenoms than understand the science of simple everyday things around us.

Vor year
Peter
Peter

I thoroughly enjoyed this science talk and learnt quite a lot then I would in class. Thank you! Now onto your next video as I down my non-equilibrium beverage 🥤

Vor 10 Monate
J O
J O

Very interesting, I learned things today that I didn’t know. I thought the solid water experiment will be faster because the chemical potential of ice versus the chemical potential of water in salty water would be a bigger gradient. But of course the density explains the whole thing. The next experiment to do, will be to stir the ice while melting

Vor 9 Monate
Juraj Barták
Juraj Barták

I like your videos , entertaining and educative :) Keep it up , good work mate !

Vor 11 Monate
Mark Bergendahl
Mark Bergendahl

Great explanations for phrnomena that we took for granted but never actually understood. Well done !

Vor 5 Monate
Halvblodsprinsen100
Halvblodsprinsen100

Well, i have one question in regards to the chain. Does the result depend on it being a ballbead chain? It is known that that type of chain acts different than others under certain circumstances, like the Mould effect in chain fountains.

Vor 3 Monate
Lukas Klüpfel
Lukas Klüpfel

Wow, now I got an explaination on why tapping on a can of beer actually makes it not spill. Thanks :)

Vor 10 Monate
Dudley Boy
Dudley Boy

i miss the days when i was hyped about getting home from school to watch Nat Geo science and experiments shows, but discovering your channel brought me the nostalgia about discovering new things

Vor 29 Tage
Don McLoud
Don McLoud

Your videos are a fresh air in internet, finally both entertaining and intellectual content, that is the original purpose of the great network - sharing knowledge and experience

Vor 10 Monate
Pol Gabaldon
Pol Gabaldon

Can we all take a moment to appreciate this fly flying through the ring in slo-mo? 5:26

Vor 2 years
Dylicious
Dylicious

Fly circus!

Vor 21 Tag
Carnyx
Carnyx

Came here to say just that!

Vor 26 Tage
simen kolås
simen kolås

I love the sound from the ring and the chain

Vor Monat
Oofy
Oofy

lol i saw that too

Vor Monat
ミヤムラ イズミ
ミヤムラ イズミ

It's his pet

Vor Monat
Plastic Creations
Plastic Creations

I'm wondering then if shaking the bottle (after the bottle was opened and re-closed) would be a good way of enabling the CO2 to stay in the bottle longer (i.e. slow down the process of the drink going flat)? Or would the opposite be true?

Vor 8 Monate
jcork
jcork

No, the opposite would be true. If you had an external source of pressure, e.g. a bike pump, you would extend the life, but if the only source of pressure is the dissolved gas, you’re only getting as much pressure as would eventually as it goes flat. You’re just accelerating the process. You can’t “borrow” pressure from the gas coming out of the solution and use it to prevent the gas coming out of the solution, if that makes sense…

Vor 5 Monate
FlamingKami
FlamingKami

You can use the "law of perfect gases" to determine the question with the soda bottle. [V(sub1) x P(sub1) / T(sub1) = V(sub2) x P(sub2) / T(sub2)] This basically states that if pressure, volume, or temperature change, one of the others will be affected in some way. The volume of the container cannot change, and the temperate of the bottle's contents don't change either. So someone can reasonably assume that the pressure would also be unchanged.

Vor 10 Monate
Share Premium
Share Premium

Ok

Vor 7 Monate
Yuppi
Yuppi

Shows how important it is to rehearse and return to things you know. I knew about the nucleation site bubbles helping dissolved carbon return to gas, but the knowledge didn't trigger from the memory when focusing on the pressure/temperature talk.

Vor 7 Monate
Leonardofmo
Leonardofmo

The paper straw fact is pretty cool. After hearing that, something in my head *clicked* and i then realised why its so fizzy when i drank sprite with my straw than just my mouth. Even tho i had a metal straw, it seemed to have the same effect as a paper one. Anyway, thanks, nice vid

Vor 8 Monate
ToastyFresh
ToastyFresh

This man not only told us how bottles explode but how to prevent it Give him a salute

Vor 2 years
Speaks The Obvious
Speaks The Obvious

I squeeze liter soda bottles before capping them back up. If the bottle isn't shaken, it will hold carbonation longer. I assume this is because there is less air for the carbon to escape into.

Vor year
Tracy Crawford
Tracy Crawford

Always the public servant. I like that.

Vor year
Ace Ggkspade
Ace Ggkspade

Aladato I thought this was a well known trick everyone knew. However it doesn’t work quite as well on a can. You got to flick it like 4-5 times on the sides and another 4-5 times on top

Vor year
Ace Ggkspade
Ace Ggkspade

He also made us believe our sodas are sitting at the grocery store for a few days lol more like a few months to a year

Vor year
Bean's Robot
Bean's Robot

Hey Veritasium! I want you to cover this topic. There is a handpump near my house which sometimes throws water automatically without pumping. Why does that happens?

Vor 6 Monate
Lyndon Than
Lyndon Than

The soda bottle issue leaves something uncovered. The contents can never exceed a pressure of 3 bar (not exactly true, but mainly true). This is because if the pressure increased beyond 3 Bar, more gas would dissolve into the liquid, lowering the pressure again to 3 bar. conversely, if the pressure were to lower below 3bar, more gas would come out of the liquid until the balance was again achieved at 3 bar. This must be a special pressure, based on the properties of that liquid paired with that particular gas. I presume this pressure results from the solubility of the two materials. With a higher solubility, the equilibrium pressure would be lower, and vice versa. The reason the pressure doesn't change upon shaking the bottle, is because the solubility does not change, which is the driving force of the equilibrium, and also the determinant of the equilibrium pressure.

Vor 8 Monate
Samuel Mellars
Samuel Mellars

I think I know how to explain this one! As you change pressure, you change the amount of gas (in this case CO2) that can dissolve in the liquid. More pressure=more gas dissolved If you increase the pressure by squishing the bottle, you could theoretically get all the gas to dissolve into the liquid, and get a bottle that just had liquid in it, no air space above it. Three bar of pressure is a deliberate choice by the soda companies. Enough pressure to have a good amount of fizz in your drink, so it doesn't go flat as fast, but not so much pressure the bottle will explode in storage/transport. I suspect this is why cheaper drinks with weaker/cheaper bottles go flat faster. There's less dissolved gas so they can have lower pressure in the bottle and use a cheaper bottle

Vor 8 Monate
Maxwell Mulford
Maxwell Mulford

In a can, another way to get rid of the nucleation sites is to squeeze the can really hard all over to redissolve the bubbles and open it without incident.

Vor 8 Monate
greg thomas
greg thomas

The nucleation explanation makes sense. I wonder, if you could remove all air from the top of the bottle and then shake the bottle and open it would there be no reaction?

Vor 8 Monate
Jakub Narębski
Jakub Narębski

About the second problem: ice cube in fresh water and in salt water - why not use thermal camera (with time-lapse) to see what is happening?

Vor 2 years
Zephyr NW
Zephyr NW

Thermal cameras cannot see through glass.

Vor 3 Monate
Amalia Nurani
Amalia Nurani

The @Veritasium

Vor 6 Monate
Amalia Nurani
Amalia Nurani

@Veritasium

Vor 6 Monate
Vincent Sullivan
Vincent Sullivan

@boomstick900 Yes, salt water "ice" would melt differently. If you add salt (NaCl) to water it lowers the freezing temperature. You can use a google search to find a brine table or brine graph which will tell you the temperature at which brine (salt water) will freeze. Now, if you have pure water ice which will melt at 0 degrees (C.) and put it into a cup of water at 20 degrees (C.) which is about room temperature there will be 20 degrees of temperature difference driving the heat flow to melt the ice. If you have a frozen 23.3% brine solution (the eutectic mixture) it will melt at about -21.1 degrees (C.) and place it in a cup of water at 20 degrees (C.) there will be 41.1 degrees of temperature difference driving the heat flow which means the heat flow will be a little over 4 times larger than the pure water ice example. I think you can figure it out from there...

Vor year
Febri World
Febri World

@Veritasium oof

Vor year
Crow Wick
Crow Wick

Thanks. Love your explanations.

Vor 11 Monate
Randy Y
Randy Y

He'll never answer this question 2 years later but i wonder if the soda problem can be expressed in terms of surface area in the same way solid metal is hard to ignite but shaved or powdered metal is much easier to ignite. I understand that nucleation points and surface to absorb heat are different but could this be boiled down to maximizing surface are for these physical changes?

Vor 5 Monate
Nm rj
Nm rj

Salt water melting can probably also be explained by the phenomenon of depression of freezing point.

Vor 9 Monate
Infinity Master
Infinity Master

I guessed wrong on the first experiment, but I'm happy I guessed right on the second experiment (I guess those school chemistry lessons really did benefit me for once lol).

Vor 9 Monate
Jeff Love
Jeff Love

Paper straws that come wrapped individually in plastic. Genius.

Vor 2 years
Omar Faruk
Omar Faruk

Don't use straws

Vor 8 Monate
Junk Bond Trader
Junk Bond Trader

@M F so I guess using a fork is suicide? Tooth brush? metal straws killed one woman in a freak accident. I bet someone died from a toothpick.

Vor 8 Monate
Isaiah OConnor
Isaiah OConnor

@Femaiden treated with wax or plastic...

Vor 8 Monate
Femaiden
Femaiden

people seem utterly perplexed that paper straws can contain liquid. . but we already have paper cups, have had them for decades. . .

Vor 8 Monate
Jo2h
Jo2h

@exerxac wrapped*

Vor 8 Monate
Franz Kass
Franz Kass

Amazing! Will spend the next days (weeks, months...) watching your videos! They are SO interesting - why should I do anything else? :D

Vor 6 Monate
Albert Hopfer
Albert Hopfer

Actually initially stating what salt does to water (cools) is also what happens when you drop an ice cube in to the salt water - the water cools around the newly introduced water (in its frozen state) the salt reacts with the ice cube (of water) slightly cooling the water temperature around that cube - so it melts slower over time as more ice becomes liquid water.

Vor 4 Monate
Fabian_017 4
Fabian_017 4

These videos are so nice to watch while relaxing, it's so interesting and I actually learn stuff from these vids💪🏻😂💪🏻

Vor 10 Monate
Dtr146
Dtr146

i got the ice one right because i based my theory on an experience I had. I was salting my sidewalk with my bare hand reaching into the bag like an imbecile. I grabbed some snow to get the salt off and my hand got STUPIDLY COLD! So I'm assuming that the salt reacts with the medium its in somehow letting the medium stay colder for longer. thus letting the ice not melt so fast.

Vor 9 Monate
MRmisterG
MRmisterG

I really liked the trick you did with the ring, especially the part where you trained the fly to fly through the ring at 5:26 when you dropped it. Very impressive.

Vor 2 years
Anthony Ashdown
Anthony Ashdown

Who else re-watched this at timestamp several times in awe of the fly?

Vor 2 years
Josh Vuong
Josh Vuong

I have an interesting question. If two equal pressure streams of water hit each other at an angle. What direction would the stream go when it hits one another. What would happen?

Vor 9 Monate
AlLen Wonch
AlLen Wonch

Another factor in the ice experiment would be the difference in heat capacity. Salt water is lower than the fresh water.

Vor 3 Monate
Denialz
Denialz

i remember making ice cream in 4th grade with rock salt, honestly looking back the best thing i learned in school

Vor 8 Monate
Graeme Gunn
Graeme Gunn

The third one always amazes me, even when you see it in slow motion it looks like magic still.

Vor 9 Monate
Iqbal Umran
Iqbal Umran

The sound of the ring in slowmo is really satisfying

Vor year
Shadab Khan
Shadab Khan

He's trying to teach physics chemistry with videos. le me with arts stream - wow rhe sounds are so satisfying 😮

Vor year
Logan Nearhood
Logan Nearhood

Came down here to say that, come to see it's one of the top comments, youtube comments are great 👌

Vor year
george kane
george kane

Ikr

Vor year
JJP gaming
JJP gaming

Iqbal Umran that's the spirit

Vor year
Connorade
Connorade

@Hubert Jarechowicz Most High speed cameras don't record sound so they can focus on getting high speed

Vor year
Luke Brown
Luke Brown

I can't believe I learned something today at 2:30 in the morning. Amazing. Love the videos by the way. Fascinating stuff.

Vor 3 Monate
Peksi Sarvinen
Peksi Sarvinen

"Well obviously the pressure would increase, that's not a very hard question." *Pressure stays the same* "...Just as I predicted, obviously it stays the same."

Vor 9 Monate
Jed Gould
Jed Gould

Maybe someone else thought of this but since salt water is heavier, a fresh water ice cube would float higher and therefore be less prone to a fast melt. Like icebergs.

Vor 7 Monate
LeGoat James
LeGoat James

The ring one is harder than I thought! Tried doing it and only did it about once in 20 times

Vor 3 Monate
Edouard Dubois
Edouard Dubois

The slowmo sound of the ring and chain was very satisfying.

Vor 2 years
D3L M11
D3L M11

Its sound like alien kill machine

Vor 2 years
Shayna Domina
Shayna Domina

The fly jumping through the hoop like a tiny little circus performer was very satisfying.

Vor 2 years
NICEFINENEWROBOT
NICEFINENEWROBOT

@Edouard Dubois Just get a boy rattling his stick on a garden fence in Paris. (The US is void of garden fences.)

Vor 2 years
CoolAsFreya
CoolAsFreya

Probably faked really well, actual slomo sound sucks

Vor 2 years
Ram Roy
Ram Roy

*Asmr youtubers furiously taking notes

Vor 2 years
Bwfvc
Bwfvc

Very interesting but I suspect that soft drink manufacturers are watering down CO2 with air to save cost. Bearing in mind that CO2 is an acidic gas which besides adding piquance also presumably acts as a preservative and slightly chills a liquid upon pressure release. I love the concept of CO2 charged Magma.

Vor 2 Monate
Joshua Roebuck
Joshua Roebuck

What would be amazing is if the universe's false vacuum was achieved by a similar rotation which, otherwise would have reached true 0, but was supported in much the same way as this ring is on the chain.

Vor 9 Monate
Jigger Jones
Jigger Jones

Whoa, this video validated my belief on how the natural universe formed. THANK YOU, VERITASIUM!

Vor 9 Monate
Mire Slavejkov
Mire Slavejkov

While on the subject of pressure in carbonated drinks, here's aquestion... Have you ever noticed that if you put some water in an emptied plastic bottle of a fizzy drink and shake it (to wash it), it suddenly shrinks as if there is a drop of pressure? Obviously when pouring the watter in and closing it, it is at normal atmospheric pressure, but why would shaking it drop the pressure below?

Vor 10 Monate
Jarrad Scarborough
Jarrad Scarborough

Derek: works hard, makes smart science video internet: *_oh, look, there's a fly!_*

Vor 2 years
Peggy French
Peggy French

When he drops the ring into the necklace in slowmo it sounds so cool.

Vor year
tets mcalfy
tets mcalfy

i have a perplexing science problem: where do my socks go when i do the laundry?

Vor year
No.1 DD enjoyer
No.1 DD enjoyer

@minecrafter0505 parkour!

Vor year
Jeremy Ng
Jeremy Ng

Flies have been getting a lot of publicity lately

Vor year
Sandip Paul
Sandip Paul

Oh but i love flies.

Vor year
Peter
Peter

While I agree with the cold fresh water boundry effect is making the ice cube in the salt water melt slower is true, I believe there could be another mechanism in place as well. As you mentioned, salt is used to melt ice on our roads, why is that? Because the salt lowers the freezing point of water. 100 g of salt in 1 kg of water lowers the freezing point to about -6 Degree Celsius. Thus, as the ice cube in the salt water melts it will cool the water in the glass to less than 0 degrees (as it would be in the fresh water glass). Thus, the temperature difference between the salt water and the ice cube will be less than the temperature difference between the ice cube and the fresh water. The heat transfer rate in the salt water glass will thus be lower because of this as well. It's however assumed that the ice cube is big enough to cool the water to freezing point temperature. A way to proof this theory would be to insulate the glasses and introduce a continuous stirr to both of them. The boundary/bouyancy effect would then be negligable. Also the water temperature in the two glasses could be measured during the test.

Vor 9 Monate
Glen Halmshaw
Glen Halmshaw

Ok one thing I've always wondered is why if you shake a can of coke it spray's everywhere but if you tap the top it doesn't. I have a sort of understanding of what happens but it would be nice to hear a scientific explanation.

Vor 28 Tage
Lisa Dickison
Lisa Dickison

Wow! My dad was right. He said to tap on a can to make it not fizz like that. I always thought it bought extra time. It was scientific!

Vor 11 Monate
CJMYRA GUY
CJMYRA GUY

I've always been wondering why a&w paper straws are constantly overflowing thank you 🙏

Vor 9 Monate
andred cook
andred cook

How fast does a car need to go to make a flat tire support the weight of the car through centripetal force I’ve wondered this for years

Vor 2 years
jeaniebird
jeaniebird

Have I been misspelling and mispronouncing centrifugal force, all my life??

Vor year
SHAYWATERS THEONE
SHAYWATERS THEONE

999 likes GIVE EM ONE MORE!!

Vor year
Will Potter
Will Potter

I calculated approximately 91mph setting the centrifugal force equation equal to the standard tyre pressure multiplied by the contact surface area of the tyre.

Vor year
Aivu nunya
Aivu nunya

0 Technically as long as you haven't torn through the tread with your wheel it's still supporting it.

Vor 2 years
Charley Rocha
Charley Rocha

@ModelLights Plus, I wonder if we should be using the angular momentum of a circular crown instead of that of a particle. I think the mass moment of inertia would play an important role here.

Vor 2 years
Patrick Coffey
Patrick Coffey

It would be cool to see a video on carbonation in general, things like carbonic acids effect on oh, temperatures affect on the ability for a liquid to absorb CO2 and even chalk and other oh buffers interactions with those processes

Vor 11 Monate
BraveNewWhirled
BraveNewWhirled

You should do the experiment where you tap on the side of a plastic bottle filled with supercooled liquid. The effect is very fun to watch when using a clear carbonated beverage such as mountain dew.

Vor 9 Monate
Kevin Moor
Kevin Moor

Sometime later: In the UK some pint glasses, designed to serve heavily carbonated beers, often have an engraving inside the bottom. This causes the beer to fizz up with a greater head as it is poured from the tap

Vor 17 Tage
Johny40Se7en
Johny40Se7en

Wonderful video. And even though the ring trick was explained, it still feels like magic 😊🥰 Now, about paper straws, they're great, better than shitty plastic ones, which are one of the things made my Humans that can't be recycled, so either end up in an overflowing landfill system, or go into the oceans and getting stuck up a dolphin or sea turtles' nose 🤢🤮👉

Vor 14 Tage
Synergy
Synergy

Me: Doesn't understand how the ring got stuck Veritasium: Explains in a very simple and understandable way Me: Doesn't understand how the ring got stuck

Vor year
NotSuRe
NotSuRe

4:20 grab the bottom of the ring and think about it😶‍🌫️

Vor 10 Monate
Nom Sauce
Nom Sauce

@Thomas Chevrier Laliberté I'd recommend just replicating it on your own, but instead of dropping the ring, just move it on your own and copy the movement of the example where he drops the ring, and the example where he moves it on his own. The thing that easily gets you confused is thinking the chain has not moved a significant amount, but the ring being tilted to 90degrees is causing the chain to wrap on the ring on two different sides. The other side actually wraps back around itself because the ring is forcing itself through the "hole" of the chain in the center. Look at the "knot" it creates, it's a really simple one that I'm sure everyone is familiar with. Create that knot yourself with a closed loop chain/thread or whatever you have at hand. Do that a couple of times with something like a pencil 2 or 3 times, then do it with a ring. Then after that do it in the way that's happening in the video, you'll get it pretty quickly. Only reason I understood what happened is because I have ADHD and would constantly do this "knot" with various string/thread and random school objects while in class lol.

Vor 11 Monate
Thomas Chevrier Laliberté
Thomas Chevrier Laliberté

@Vinita Sharma very good idea and I still don't understand it! It looks like a scene out of a transformer movie and is really sharp though.

Vor 11 Monate
Vinita Sharma
Vinita Sharma

5:30 watch this in 0.25x (I did twice) and then read the explanations. See how the ring tilts after which the chain wraps around its edge, making a loop.

Vor 11 Monate
Roy DM
Roy DM

The bottom of the chain gets pulled up (same way as a person would do it). Thats about it. The mistery is that its the same force from the falling ring what does it.

Vor year
Ystebad VonSchlegel
Ystebad VonSchlegel

When I drink part of a 2 liter soda bottle, I squeeze the bottle to remove as much air as possible before I put the cap back on. My theory is that doing this allows less gas to come out of solution before equilibrium is reached again thereby prolonging the amount of time before it goes flat. However I’m unsure this is correct because the bottle will not establish increased pressure until it is reformed into it’s full shape so really the only force keeping the bottle from reforming is atmospheric pressure. Can anyone comment?

Vor 9 Monate
Jose Damiani
Jose Damiani

I wonder if you could drink the water surrounding an iceberg, as it is technically less salty than the rest? How far does that effect extend to?

Vor 8 Tage
Max Mustermann
Max Mustermann

No. 3 is depending on length and weight of the chain, distance between the chain strands and also on weight and rotation speed of the ring. The more you increase the length of the chain, increase the weight of the chain, reduce the distance between the chain strands, reduce the weight of the ring or decrease the rotation speed of the ring the more unlikely it becomes to achieve the same result. It's like the phenomenon of a buttered toast falling from the table mostly landing on the buttered side.

Vor 19 Tage
Lilli Eide
Lilli Eide

Imagine if there was an infinite number of perplexing physics problems, we'd never get to the explanation of any of them

Vor 5 Monate
Steven Spencer
Steven Spencer

When I was a kid, I was taught to tap on the top of coke cans before opening them in case they had been shaken or dropped. I never really thought about why this would help. Turns out I was removing nucleation bubbles.

Vor 2 years
Gaming WO
Gaming WO

Chicken Muncher the fluid doesn’t reach the top of the can. You’re tapping the top, not the sides.

Vor 2 years
life_archive
life_archive

@Gyzardo If you're aggressive about it, sure.

Vor 2 years
Gyzardo
Gyzardo

Didn’t backyard scientist pretty much prove that if anything it makes it WORSE?

Vor 2 years
David Sanchez
David Sanchez

*bubbles not nucleation bubbles. lol

Vor 2 years
Marqan
Marqan

Ye, I thought that was just an urban legend.

Vor 2 years
Bodhisattwa Ganguly
Bodhisattwa Ganguly

Few perplexing questions connected to interesting phenomena 1. How does a gecko crawl upside down on glass 2. How do bumblebees fly 3. How do bats know about moving targets with accuracy using just echo 4. Does lightning create antimatter

Vor 11 Monate
Forgie Dusker
Forgie Dusker

Something I've wondered about for a while is why, when i flip the TV remote (or similar object) in the air with the front flipping over towards me a single rotation, and when i catch it, it flipped horizontally as well as vertically. Nothing really too perplexing, but it does make me curious.

Vor 8 Monate
Thomas Adkins
Thomas Adkins

More weight at the bottom probably, look up roly-poly toys or lazy dog bomb. (At least that is my guess if you're not throwing it in a specific way)

Vor 6 Monate
Mexie Mex
Mexie Mex

First two I correctly predicted, third I already knew (I'm a magician and it's a fairly common effect, although it's normally done slightly differently to how it was done here).

Vor 10 Monate
Screen Name
Screen Name

Weird. I grabbed a closed soda bottle the other day and I was able to collapse it slightly by squeezing. I dropped it in the parking lot and when I picked it up I couldn't crush the sides at all by squeezing. I thought this was indicative of an increase in pressure in the bottle.

Vor 8 Monate
lace (boner)
lace (boner)

I love how he takes such tiny sips of the soda, I feel like he would never drink it for any other occasion

Vor 11 Monate
Daniel Rønjom
Daniel Rønjom

yeah I was thinking like: "oh he will drink it lets enjoy him enjoying his soda" then I was dissapointed just a short sip lol

Vor 3 Tage
Rumo
Rumo

I would do it the same probably. 😅

Vor 3 Tage
Master
Master

A Chad he is

Vor 3 Monate
Hermann la Grange
Hermann la Grange

Do this at home. Take a fizzy drink bottle and squeeze it. Then shake it and try to squeeze it again. Pretty sure the second time you squeeze it, the bottle is much firmer. It's not there is NO increase in pressure, its just not nearly as much as we might think.

Vor 8 Monate
incon
incon

My mom taught me with soda cans (not bottles) that if you want to prevent it from exploding after shaking it, you tap the top of the can. Never made sense why but now I finally get it

Vor 8 Monate
Miselfis
Miselfis

I guessed right about the soda pressure. By shaking it, you’re not actually introducing more “air” (pressure) into the bottle, so it’d not make sense for the pressure to rise. We did the ice cube experiment in high school so I knew the answer to that one. We also used coloured ice cubes, which made me chuckle a bit when you realized that was the best way to show what’s happening. But I still don’t understand the ring thing. I replicated it myself, recorded it in slow motion from multiple angles, but I still don’t understand and how the chain wraps around the ring.

Vor 3 Monate
William Wolf
William Wolf

Could you produce an item like a mentos but with far more surface space for the coke to interact with?

Vor 9 Monate
Henry Cam
Henry Cam

I've seen enough Veritasium to know when I'm being asked a trick question.

Vor 2 years
Owen Toad
Owen Toad

@Ray & Karen Meuchel You can. That’s how fish breathe.

Vor 10 Monate
Ray & Karen Meuchel
Ray & Karen Meuchel

Why can't you put oxygen into solution like co2????

Vor 2 years
Mustanaamiotto
Mustanaamiotto

@HenneDS as in they changed their answer because they want to seem smart

Vor 2 years
Scott Hutton
Scott Hutton

The iceberg syndrome :-) Also the amount of heat absorbed by salt water is less due to salt water interfering with hydrogen bonding.

Vor 5 Monate
Matt Ellinger
Matt Ellinger

4:04 - 4:27 is literally the most satisfying sound in the known universe; i could listen to that for hours ♡

Vor 2 Monate
tc r
tc r

Theoretically this means the way to stop a soda from going flat after opening it would be to squeeze the bottle until there was no air in the top as it would no longer attempt equilibrium. Correct? (I'd test it out myself but I don't drink soda any more.)

Vor 10 Monate
Seraphiiin
Seraphiiin

How long did you have to wait for the sodium solution to reach room temp?

Vor 9 Monate
oriana garrido
oriana garrido

5:20 I'm impressed by that fly's performance skills.

Vor 2 years
ArchangelExile
ArchangelExile

Now we know which finger he used to scratch his butt.

Vor 2 years
Jason Hardman
Jason Hardman

He is "The One"

Vor 2 years
Albert Herencsár
Albert Herencsár

The trick actually works only if a fly flies through the ring.

Vor 2 years
Schuppe
Schuppe

Looks like it landed on the ring for a short time? :D Or fly through? Wtf, this were a fraction of a second...

Vor 2 years
fugliest alive
fugliest alive

oriana garrido OMG IT WAS EXACTLY 5:20 WHEN I SEEN THIS COMMENT

Vor 2 years
Phillip Crow
Phillip Crow

I think the slow motion ring falling was the most satisfying thing I've ever seen.

Vor 6 Monate
Malcolm Tieman
Malcolm Tieman

Have a look at the very clever design of pressurised soft drink caps, there’s a lot of clever thinking in how they work !

Vor 8 Monate
endplanets
endplanets

7:20 For the right-hand side: the exact same thing happens if you have ever watched forest fires. The fire starts small and slowly expands, with hot air being pushed in all directions (essentially pushing away oxygen). Once the fire gets hot and large something just snaps and all heat forces the spent and hot air upwards and laterally sucks in cooler oxygenated air. This then perpetuates itself and becomes a 'stable' flow.

Vor 3 Monate
xxxYYZxxx
xxxYYZxxx

The paper-straw information totally explains and validates that time I threw my Big Gulp at the 7-11 clerk in disgust at the flat, foamy flavor.

Vor 9 Monate
Charlie He
Charlie He

Honestly the sound of the ring locking on the chain in slow motion is so satisfying.

Vor year
Keldor D'Antrell
Keldor D'Antrell

@Mitchell Beaver perhaps an even better fun fact, slow motion photography is more properly called high speed photography since, counter-intuitively, it isn't recorded by slowing the camera down but speeding up - greatly (slowing the camera down would make the recorded subject appear to speed up).

Vor year
Jamesmichael Cabrera
Jamesmichael Cabrera

For real I was feeling the same

Vor year
Mitchell Beaver
Mitchell Beaver

Fun fact, slow motion cameras don't record audio. All sounds you hear while watching slow motion photography are added in post. I'm not referring to your simulated slomo like your phone makes.

Vor year
Heath Mitchell
Heath Mitchell

@Logan Stapley I was thinking that it seemed too perfect to be real

Vor year
Joel Kronqvist
Joel Kronqvist

Well that must be why it sounds like a civilization being established xD

Vor year
Rumo
Rumo

The trick with the removing of the bubbles on the walls is genius!

Vor 3 Tage
MrEdzar
MrEdzar

The one with the chain was awsome, love the vids

Vor 3 Monate
Keith Higgs
Keith Higgs

One additional point on the closed bottle in equilibrium: When you shake the sealed bottle you do not increase the mass of the contents. The amount of material contained is static so without changing either the volume of the bottle, or the temperature the pressure must remain the same.

Vor 6 Monate
MightyBiffer
MightyBiffer

Not quite right. The amount of material in the bottle does not determine the pressure. But rather the state of the materials in the bottle. That is why the sealed bottle with a 1 atmosphere pressure increases to 3 atmospheres pressure over time. In that case the volume has stayed constant. Temperature has stayed the same and the amount of material has not changed either.

Vor 3 Monate
Big Country
Big Country

that seems like a variable that should be included in climate models, because freshwater glaciers calving into the oceans is a huge part of ocean level models.

Vor 3 Monate
charkopolis
charkopolis

That's right internet, we aren't done with mentos in soda

Vor 2 years
Mher Saribekyan
Mher Saribekyan

Now we need memes

Vor 2 years
Felix Kütt
Felix Kütt

Well, now we are.

Vor 2 years

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